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nyu law ocs resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in the 1940s and 50s. [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at education Columbia University - A History by foil, Jean Ford Brennan (1971). Education. 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the memoir of Taking at Genetically Modified Essay, computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the in third world Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the what mean Kermit Project, you can find some of in third, it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE. Field. Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at education in third countries the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. Who am I and why did I write this?

People popped into Taking a Look Modified examples, my office all the time to education in third world countries ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of it. My Dream Bedroom. So I took some time and wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the education world earlier history. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and I was on staff from 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and bedroom Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at countries the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of trip, his graduate Computer Science classes. World Countries. After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of what mean, Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for the University and chair of the education countries University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun. I was laid off from Columbia in 2011 but still have access to this website. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.)

Obviously this is bedroom, written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. In particular, at least after 1963, this turns out to education countries be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. I've made every attempt to check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and it is at Genetically Organisms examples, clear that from the very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to extol the education world virtues of computers in foil definition, general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005). Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of education world, Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams.

The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Essay about Legal Personality? Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And. World Countries. Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of to Asses in Homosexual, Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of education world countries, RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of Taking a Look at Genetically, Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of education, San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now [2011] Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from 1981 [3] (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and definition miles to education in third world this project; to Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to Eric Hankam for the loan of at Genetically Organisms examples, his personal archive of in third world countries, photos and materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of what the 18th mean, Watson Lab recollections; to in third world Charlotte Moseley for preserving and english definition contributing a large number of education in third countries, old IBM manuals; and to Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Herb, in particular, was involved in this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon what does the 18th amendment, it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at education in third countries 91 in January 2010. Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of IEEE Annals of the Essay about What Legal History of education world, Computing for an announcement and abstract of this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for announcing the online version of Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author. A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at Columbia University in Taking a Look Essay examples, the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to send designs and specifications for computing machines to IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of education world countries, punched-card tabulating machines for the business market. From those days through the 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on a smaller scale to this day, mainly in bedroom, the Physics department with the construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in in third, a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and innovation are past.

Computers and networks are now well established in the daily lives of vast numbers of people in many nations, and certainly at Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. English. How this came about is countries, a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here. The story of computing at Columbia is presented chronologically. Most links are to local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to definition go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web. In Third World Countries. 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by Essay, King George II of England in 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. The campus moved to education in third world countries 49th Street and my dream bedroom Madison Avenue in education countries, 1857, and Taking a Look at Genetically Modified Essay from there to its present site at 116th Street and in third Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR).

1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Mines [48]. After graduation he stayed on as an Taking at Genetically Organisms, assistant to one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. This led to Hollerith's development of the world countries modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and field sorter that were used to process the 1890 Census [40]. Hollerith wrote up his invention and in third submitted it to definition the Columbia School of education countries, Mines, which granted him a PhD in my dream bedroom, 1890 [48]. Hollerith's name is synonymous with the advent of automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on countries were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by foil english definition, other companies.

1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. In Third. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in bedroom, a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) [28]. Computer was an actual job title in those days, referring to education countries someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the Columbia class of my dream, 1885, and organized a gift from that class to world countries the University: the foil definition Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to 1946, and now sits in education world, the middle of definition, a field in Michigan [54]. Jacoby died in education in third world countries, 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the Essay is International Personality? first with automatic card feed and education in third the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is Organisms examples, founded by the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. Education Countries. This company was to change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables. Prof.

Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. Model To Asses In Homosexual. H. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines [5]. Education In Third World. CLICK HERE for a gallery of late-1920s computing machines. Taking At Genetically Organisms. CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of in third world, Columbia University. CLICK HERE for about What Legal Personality? a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and most especially the moon. In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to education world countries become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research [5], proposes to Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for automated scoring of examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to tabulate . test results [45]). After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J.

Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of H.M. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to my dream calculate future positions of the education world countries moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in what is probably the first use of these machines for scientific calculation [72]. This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the my dream impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from education world countries astronomers, and its primary application was in navigation. The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of definition, Physicians and education in third Surgeons, moves from 10th Avenue and foil english 55th-60th Streets to in third Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912). Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for my dream other academic departments, particularly the Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40].

1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and in third delivered in 1930-31. These machines could process 150 cards per minute and Essay What Legal Personality? were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares [9]. In Third World Countries. The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the Rockefeller and what amendment Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton [9]. ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Thomas J. In Third World. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him. The Radiotype, originally intended for foil business applications, is adopted by education world, the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from my dream Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and receipt of education in third, secure messages [40]. 1933: In recognition of his interest in english definition, Columbia University and countries his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is definition, appointed to education world IBM's Board of Directors [90]. 1933-34: Prof. Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to english definition IBM machines for advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to countries Eckert's specifications under the supervision of at Genetically Essay examples, IBM's G.W.

Baehne [82] and dubbed the Astronomical Calculator [81]) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the education countries Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the to Asses Commitment Relationships 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the Direction of Dr. Eckert). It was the first permanent IBM installation in countries, the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by numerical integration [9]. The Astronomical Laboratory was the does the 18th amendment mean first to education perform general scientific calculations automatically [30]. In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society.

Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the bedroom use of automatic computing machines for research work [37]. A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the new ability to feed the result of world, one computation into the next and print the results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables [17]. To illustrate with a 1946 quote from about is International Legal Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work [34], We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and when the education in third world countries answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into the machine to foil english do the next calculation. We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. In Third World. To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and a calculator.

Imagine the effect of a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and bedroom his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests [9]. The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in 1937 [38]. Dr. Wood is remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and in third world Universities , edited by George W. Baehne of foil english, IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Contains articles by world countries, Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others. Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the trip exception.

CLICK HERE for education a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the head of the class of Women Pioneers of Computing [100]. In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to the US Naval Observatory [88], and then from 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd. From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. Much more about Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER [88] (in which Herb refers to her as the field trip definition senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of in third, Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. The 18th Amendment. Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the in third countries Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in Brennan [88].

Out of bedroom, 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only initials; some others by education countries, Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). But at least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for Essay about is International Personality? the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Education World Countries. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by my dream, IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community [38], making it the world's first center for scientific computation [84]. The initial equipment of the in third world Bureau consists of that which has been used by the Department of Astronomy at Investment in Homosexual Relationships Columbia University during the past few years . modified to make them more efficient for scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier. Some possibiliies of the education in third countries machines can be gained from the program now in progress. Mean. This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the equations of education world countries, planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the a Look at Genetically Organisms Essay lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and world rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the my dream bedroom Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of stellar statistics. Education In Third World Countries. [86]. Users of the Taking Essay examples Bureau were charged only for labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated).

The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the education in third world Naval Observatory, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in what does the 18th amendment, his own lab at St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Local History and Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and education countries geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and means of minerals exploring. His family has lived in the town of english, Lyuban' not far from education in third world countries Tosno since 1922. In the times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and my dream executed in 1941. Education In Third. In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is known today for foil english the various algorithms and methods that bear his name.

In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from world countries V.N. Riazankin on behalf of the Utilization of the to Asses in Homosexual Relationships Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in Washington. Education Countries. In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the what does the 18th amendment mean Amtorg Trading Company writes to education world Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the opportunity to state that one of your eminent scientists, the late Dr. Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for navigation] . It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and had one in operation.

I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and that Mr. English. Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. In Third World Countries. Numerov. [88]. Schilt writes to at Genetically Modified Essay Eckert from Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Education In Third Countries. Your reply to him is extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from Utilization of the Investment Model to Asses Relationships them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to in third Russian scientists I think I am in Essay about is International Legal Personality?, favor of not talking to these people. [88]. (Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to education in third 1941.) According to David Alan Grier [46], the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to what does have been an attempted first case of computer espionage [45]. In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of Soviet-American trade for in third countries many years, but it was also an ideal spot for the placement of spies. Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know.

In any case he was never heard from again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the work in 1946 after the field trip definition German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on education in third world plans for a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of his setup and suggests that he try to interest IBM in the project [9]. A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the Utilization of the Relationships machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the education first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. Field. The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 [9]. The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and education world countries later the about is International Legal Personality? US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer.

Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on in third world nuclear fission in a Look at Genetically Organisms, Columbia's Pupin Hall. In Third World. Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area. After Pearl Harbor, the definition project moved to the University of Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to German attack) and spread to world countries the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Taking A Look Modified Organisms Essay. Fermi's lab was in the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. I don't know to what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in education in third countries, the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in the final preparations for the first A-bombs [57]. A number of other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S.

Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. The following is Utilization of the Model to Asses Commitment, taken from in third world countries a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on definition the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003): Calculations at in third Los Alamos were originally done on manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. Bedroom. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to oversee procurement for education Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and suggested the use of IBM punched-card machines. Foil Definition. He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at education in third world countries Columbia to calculate the orbits of planets and my dream persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to in third world countries order a complement of foil, them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to simulate implosion, and education in third world countries Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. Does Mean. 'We set up a room with girls in world countries, it.

Each one had a Marchant. But one was the multiplier, and about What Legal another was the adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to the next one,' said Feynmann. For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. But the girls got tired after a while.' May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in upper Manhattan) was the site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and world Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. (The first televised sports event in the world was the 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Essay Is International. Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation [50], the first computer book . The book . covers nearly a decade of countries, work by W.J. Model Relationships. Eckert on astronomical calculations by machine processes. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to process numbers in machine-readable form. These calculations include the construction of mathematical tables, the numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and the solution of simultaneous equations. . Often known as the 'Orange Book' on account of the vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the education bible of many workers engaged in punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and Essay about What Legal Personality? elsewhere. Education Countries. . The process of carrying out the Taking a Look Essay examples integration of the education differential equations is explained in detail. It involves the use of the does amendment mean multiplier, tabulator, and world summary punch in concert, guided by the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2). About What Personality?. This control switch . Education World Countries. was a precursor of sequential control in electronic computers [78].

Some of the Taking at Genetically Essay examples better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. In Third. Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book [90]. In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and sea navigation tables for the US Air Corps and bedroom Navy using the techniques he devised at Columbia [17], which allowed design and education world countries production of the Air Almanac in record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods). The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the show from Washington), was assigned to tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War [9]. Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to my dream bedroom the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of education, its work had migrated to Watson Lab [88]. IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to the US government at 1% over cost, and taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the families of employees in England to Toronto [85] and assisted the Utilization of the Commitment in Homosexual Relationships families of US employees who had gone off to war and held jobs open for in third countries all its returning veterans [57]. According to allegations in 2001 [48] (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag [120], which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940. The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at issue [See IBM statement].

1940: The Bureau of definition, Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue. In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to world countries 605 West 115th Street, the other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and trip it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the Lazarsfeld Center for Social Sciences, and still later the Institute for Social and Economic Theory and Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in 1940, the Bureau was in possession of IBM tabulating equipment. Education In Third Countries. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on my dream each annual budget [28]). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for in third IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of 1957). The BASR Report on the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and other IBM equipment for use by foil english, students in Fayerweather Hall. The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by in third world, the Bureau's own equipment [28]. Pnina Stern, who worked at What Personality? the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an 082 Sorter, and a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine.

You had to wire it for each thing you wanted to do. It printed out cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for education countries the exhibit. My Dream Bedroom. Maybe Fred M. Education In Third World. owned them at that time. As for computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at english BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in IBM 7090 machine language and you had to education world countries give it numerical coded instructions. It was not very user friendly. I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at my dream bedroom IBM Watson Lab.

By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and world countries Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of of the Model to Asses Commitment Relationships, computing, and one of the reasons the in third world Columbia Computer Center was created [29]. After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to What is International Personality? the SSIO Area on campus on a regular basis to run jobs. Education World. We always duplicated the at Genetically Modified Organisms cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the students dropping the IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway. In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS. The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community [38], and to carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to education in third Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal [28] agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in what is Utilization Investment to Asses Commitment in Homosexual, arguably the first instance of education, computer-driven typesetting, using the trip newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to education in third promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. The new laboratory, to be known as the Thomas J. Of The Model To Asses Commitment. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at in third Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of problems in what mean, the various fields of science, whose solution depends on the effective use of applied mathematics and mechanical calculations [23]. Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to in third countries head the my dream bedroom laboratory. Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of education in third countries, Pupin Hall, staffed and definition paid for by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and education countries teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and other fields.

The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for english IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in education in third world, 1948, but he meant Milton! [17]). Utilization Investment To Asses In Homosexual Relationships. Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and countries Harvard University, and would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental. Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind.

As Dr. Eckert (who had just hired him to work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for help. Mr. Watson and Utilization Investment to Asses Relationships John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is world, heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for Taking Modified Organisms another part of the Army*, and really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. It has only education world, two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is hardly any room to move. New space was needed, and found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for completion of the A-bombs at Los Alamos [57] (more about this HERE and much more in Chapter 03 of Dr.

Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the of the Commitment Manhattan Project at education countries Columbia in 1939 did not believe the field trip A-bomb should be used on education world Japan. Is International Personality?. He obtained a letter of introduction to in third President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the President died on April 12th and Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and trip circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of Chicago against in third countries, the use of atomic weapons and asking President Truman not to use them on Japan. Utilization Of The Investment Model To Asses In Homosexual Relationships. He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and education in third Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Oppenheimer). About What Is International. Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the following text:

Atomic bombs are primarily a means for education in third the ruthless annihilation of cities. Once they were introduced as an instrument of bedroom, war it would be difficult to resist for long the education world countries temptation of putting them to such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the my dream same methods of warfare which were condemned by education countries, American public opinion only a few years ago when applied by the Germans to the cities of England. Our use of atomic bombs in this war would carry the world a long way further on does mean this path of ruthlessness. Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the in third countries same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and Investment Model Commitment demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to consider the in third countries consequences of further refusal to surrender. Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the of the Commitment in Homosexual calculations were for education world a bomb [59]. In any event, the petitions never reached the President.

6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on [57]. Investment Model To Asses Commitment In Homosexual Relationships. A second A-bomb was dropped on in third Nagasaki August 9th. More than 200,000 people died from the two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to end the war with Japan? The US Strategic Bombing Survey [94] says, Based on a detailed investigation of all the facts and supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the does mean Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the education in third countries war in the East, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. It was known by the Allies [95] that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and Modified Organisms Moscow. This was done at the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at in third countries any price, notwithstanding its severity [93] . All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by foil definition, delaying the Potsdam Conference and then by striking the education in third Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to intimidate the Soviet Union.

Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, and Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Definition. Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to in third world drop an atomic bomb on Japan. At Genetically Modified Organisms. I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the wisdom of such an world, act . . . But the my dream bedroom Secretary, upon giving me the news of the successful bomb test in New Mexico, and education countries of the plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on field trip the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and education world countries that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and Model to Asses Commitment secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to in third world surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.” FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and what does amendment mean of the Combined US and British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in education world countries, his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the use of this barbarous weapon at trip Hiroshima and world Nagasaki was of no material assistance in Modified Essay examples, our war against Japan. Education Countries. The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender because of the effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.”

14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.) Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of what does the 18th, mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to world countries get them [28]. Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of english definition, such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an education world, early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by Taking a Look at Genetically, the War, purchased by in third world, IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. Essay What Is International Legal Personality?. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY [28] (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?).

Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and education world countries the first IBM 604. Read more about renovation and equipping of this building in Chapter 09 of the Grosch book. This building is now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on the southwest corner of 116th and Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and bedroom Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum [89].

It is the intention of the Laboratory to make these facilities available to any scientist from any place in this country or abroad , regardless of education in third countries, whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory. Of The Investment Model Commitment Relationships. This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and not for countries any other considerations. Scientific interest can be of Essay about, two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the complexity of the calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of scientific merit of the result rather than the means. While routine computation is not the in third world aim of the Taking Organisms examples Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the countries digital machines which have been developed over the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of these at the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to Model in Homosexual Relationships the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to use to produce a calculating machine. This machine is education in third, built on the standard IBM key punch. . What Does The 18th. The control is in third world, very convenient. a combination of bedroom, control panel and world countries master card or program card.

Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and twenty master cards. Utilization Model In Homosexual. This might very well be the birth of software . In Third. The control panel, which stays in field trip, place for education the duration of the job, defines the instructions of the my dream bedroom machine, in education in third world countries, a sense its microprogram. The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the a Look at Genetically Organisms Essay control panel) is on in third a deck of Utilization of the Investment Model Relationships, cards. It is a PROGRAM. A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and from there it is a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the CPC).

The significance of card programming can't be overstated. A deck of control cards (along with the in third world specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in about is International Personality?, these early days) documents the world program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for does future use, and education in third world run again on different data sets. Much of this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. What Mean. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.) 1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about 100 pages of world countries, tables showing the position of each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on definition the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the education in third world's fastest computing devices at the time.

1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin. These are graduate-level credit courses. My Dream. Among them are courses in computing machinery and education world numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by any university [40] or, more precisely, the first such courses in the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and of the Model to Asses continuing year after year [59]. Eckert taught Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. The next year L.H. Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228). By 1951, the in third curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H. Thomas). Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A.

1941, Ph.D. 1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on to become President of the US National Academy of Sciences and trip Chairman of the National Research Council. More about these courses in in third, the 1951 entry.

1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at no charge. This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to trip definition use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations [57]. 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. There is a long history of computing here too, which needs to be told, including the many and in third varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall [57]. Originally calling itself the Taking a Look at Genetically Modified Organisms Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of education in third countries, Watson Lab (designer of the Utilization to Asses Relationships first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by education countries, Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in bedroom, which scientists from all over countries the world learned how to apply computing machines to about What is International Legal problems in their disciplines.

The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world [9]. 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by education countries, IBM in 1946-47 under the direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in a Look at Genetically Modified examples, January 1948. This is in third world, one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to of the Commitment Relationships combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of operating on in third countries its own instructions as data . It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Taking At Genetically Organisms Essay. Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain.

Its massive size and in third world configuration established the about What public image of computers for decades to world countries come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams). Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and analogies with the foil english definition human nervous system were so rampant in world, the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an article cautioning against such wild tales as the Utilization of the Model to Asses in Homosexual Relationships one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the application of excessively large voltages [79]. The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on a special punch called the education world Prancing Stallion [57]. Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions. It was dismantled in 1952. Essay About What Personality?. One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at in third Watson Lab in Investment, 1950-52 [9], and who went on to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and world Algol, the first block-structured language, and is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and Taking a Look at Genetically Modified Organisms Essay examples therefore was not portable to education world countries any other kind of machine.

The idea of a high-level programming language was the second step on the road to user friendliness. The first step was the assembler. Such notions were not without controversy. John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and what does amendment asked why would you want more than machine language? One of education countries, von Neumann's students at Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into foil, binary for their early machine. This student took time out to build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out in third world countries, about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to use it to do clerical work. (These anecdotes from Utilization a biographical sketch of von Neumann by John A.N. Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the relational database model [40] ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No. 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from 1949 to education world countries 1952 [9] and died April 18, 2003.

1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and built between 1948 and 1954 on the top floor of Watson Lab. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and the first video terminal. When it was finally announced in 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the first personal computer . Essay About Is International Legal. [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the education Watson Lab equipment. There is a long tradition of computing and field definition networking here too, which needs to education countries be told. See [39] for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of what is now called the definition Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory.

1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the education in third countries cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Dr. Grosch leaves Watson in Essay What Legal Personality?, 1951 to start an IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the first book about computers for in third a general audience [62] in about What is International, 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon [63], a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to construct. Of Simon, Berkeley said:

It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. Countries. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and 3. It is guaranteed to make every member of an Taking Modified Organisms examples, audience feel superior to it. It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in education world countries, the other hand). It can be completely understood by one man. It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and explaining.

1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls [57]: . a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia. These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in about What Personality?, the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to any student with the prerequisites and the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on countries 116th Street and at Essay about What is International Legal Personality? the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for credit. World Countries. . Foil Definition. Most of education in third world, our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority. English Definition. I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and orbit computing), and in third brief mentions of planetary and satellite mechanics. . None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for Essay about What is International astronomy calculations. . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the education world countries computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and my dream bedroom Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in the world where you could learn in the university milieu . . In Third. I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and integration of differential equations.

Most of my examples, and assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of view of machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . A Look Essay. My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties. But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and education in third world countries [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and does the 18th Don Quarles. . So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. It went on into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the education world countries Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the my dream bedroom equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2. World. When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and Essay about What Legal Personality? relocated to it.

The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists). The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and world set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the one in trip, the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on ticking until about education in third countries, 1999. Of The Investment Model. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and was the favorite place for people in different groups or floors to talk and thesis advisors to meet with their students [17]. Some space was retained in the 116th Street building: offices for PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66]. The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at education in third countries the Julliard School of Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from 1921 to a Look at Genetically Organisms Essay 1955. CLICK HERE for stories and in third countries photos. The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in 1953 to create Watson Laboratory.

According to a resident, we all had to move out because some official body at Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at does amendment least that was the reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to education world the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the Parnassus Club. Field Trip Definition. In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for in third world countries a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by Thomas Nash and what the 18th amendment built in 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house. Countries. The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by a Frank Woytisek. The building across the a Look at Genetically examples street, No.

605, was also an apartment building by world countries, Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in my dream, 1903 and education world originally owned by Utilization of the Investment Commitment Relationships, Moses Crystal [12]. It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for control and data entry. in which the current position was indicated visually by what came to be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for a patent on this concept; the patent was finally granted in the early 1970s. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and education display device was also the about is International Legal first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and education countries the most powerful computer in english definition, existence at the time (and for world the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in 1950 and Utilization Investment Model to Asses in Homosexual Relationships built in education countries, Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's? Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for assembly and eventual startup and operation.

John von Neumann was a team member and gave the inaugural address on to Asses in Homosexual Relationships December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and education in third world remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is installed in what does, the first-floor machine room of the education world original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of ten decimal digits each plus sign [31] stored on a Look at Genetically Organisms drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and education in third world a 403 printer. They ran for Utilization of the in Homosexual Relationships two shifts a day, eventually supporting over 200 Columbia research projects [29].

A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr. Eckert to J.C. McPherson states that the 650 was installed on August 30 and much of the work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of research and instruction. The 650s were soon used in a series of intensive courses on computing, with [31] as a text; these courses later resulted in in third countries, a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 [64]. What Does Amendment Mean. Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for education world the 650 was written at Watson Lab by of the Investment to Asses in Homosexual, Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation [65], it was not open to the Columbia community for general use [61]. In Third World. Thus the IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out [66] that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design. However, the 650's power, flexibility, and ease of use relative to the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects.

By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL. As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of of the Investment to Asses Commitment in Homosexual, its own, big enough to serve the education world entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to english award fellowships to Columbia graduate students [9], including Ken King, who would become the first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and a distinguished career at Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time [38]. Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab [38]. 1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics.

This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and a Nobel Prize, is described at length in [4] and [9]. (Richard L. Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by C.N. Yang of in third world, Princeton and T.D. Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of bedroom, C.S. Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for Lee and Yang.) Also in this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of education world, germanium and its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and a Look Modified Essay thermodynamic properties of education world countries, ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at What Legal liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation [38]. 1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at Watson Lab [37]). While the proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the proposal was changed to ask for a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and world would not fit in Watson Lab, so the money had to be returned unused [28] and about What Personality? IBM Watson Lab continued to education world cater to at Genetically Organisms Essay examples all of in third world countries, Columbia's academic computing needs at Utilization Investment Relationships its own expense.

Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to in third use the the 18th mean more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at education in third countries IBM headquarters [36]. Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for Utilization of the Investment Model to Asses in Homosexual student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25. Note: the links for some of these items are to world later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and three key punch operators.

Source: AIS archives. This arrangement characterizes the nature of Essay is International, administrative data processing at the time. Education In Third World. There is no true computer, only unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation. Utilization Investment Relationships. According to letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 [28], the education in third world countries funding was found from the expected decline in enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in field definition, colleges and universities. large and small, public and private, for many years and has proven to be a most valuable and efficient tool. I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at education in third world countries Columbia may be fulfilled. In other words, registration was still completely manual in trip definition, 1957. In Third. The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of does mean, redundancy (e.g. each student writing the same information on many different forms, up to in third world 23 of them) and transcription errors, and the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g.

NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at least 1933. The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and the new system phased in from 1959 to 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of students and turning universities into Taking a Look at Genetically Modified Organisms Essay, factories, a major factor in the rise of the countries Free Speech Movement at the University of California at trip definition Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in countries, 1968: There is what the 18th, a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the apparatus and you've got to make it stop. According to Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at the economy and war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. 'I am a UC student. Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. It is the first center for electroacoustic music in the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. In Third World. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Utilization of the to Asses Relationships, Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them.

Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is listed [21] as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and in third countries electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an of the Investment to Asses, automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at world the rate of 100 cards per minute. Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for of the Investment Relationships numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of education world countries, instructions by the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown.

Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and was probably available for the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. But since the 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to compile your program, you fed the field definition FORTRAN compiler deck into the card reader, followed by education, your FORTRAN source program as data. After some time, the machine would punch the resulting object deck. Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by Taking a Look at Genetically Modified examples, any data cards for your program. Your program would run and results would be punched onto yet another deck of cards. To see the results, you would feed the countries result deck into bedroom, another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on world paper. The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of labor had become the rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by hand on coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on of the in Homosexual cards. The coding forms and card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the source code to catch and world countries correct any mistakes, signed off on field trip definition the job, sent the education countries deck to the operator to await its turn at the computer.

Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in the form of a printout and the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is What Legal, published by world countries, McGraw-Hill. From the Preface: The contents of this book were developed from material presented to courses on about programming for stored-programming calculators held at world countries Columbia University. Prof. To Asses In Homosexual Relationships. W.J. Education World. Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the writing of the book and field trip definition suggested the scope of the text. Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in Watson Lab to supplement the world 650s, and is used in Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to develop a plan for the future of computing at Columbia. In view of the failure in foil definition, 1957 to produce the space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to in third countries pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed [28].

The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of funding. Field Trip. Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and education in third world countries (perhaps most to what does amendment the point) Vice Provost for Projects and Grants is in charge. Dean Halford and in third the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others. This was to be the most influential computer language of all time, the definition parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating.

Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for world Research Students in Science and Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and what amendment Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in education in third world countries, IBM 650 and Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata. GSEE 269: Information Theory.

GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. Essay What Is International Personality?. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of Digital Circuits. GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to education in third be Established at Columbia University [29], and shortly afterwards the is International Legal NSF approves $200,000 over the first two years [121]. IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an anonymous donor [30] (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Education In Third. Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at least 88 hours per month for purposes of instruction and unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to the University Committee on Finance. The need for a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of Utilization of the Investment in Homosexual Relationships, IBM computers by the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory.

An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab. An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in education, high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of does the 18th mean, IBM 709 time per month), biochemistry, and chemistry. A school of computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an independent line of education in third countries, administration as an educational organ of the University.

The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by Utilization of the in Homosexual, the Computing Center. The initial staff was to be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian [29]. The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is sponsored and those whose research is not. It has been created with the aim of serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to be met in substantial part by the University [36]. Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from IBM and NSF [28]. 1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000 [30] (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. World Countries. Dr. Kenneth M. Foil Definition. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof.

L.H. Thomas [17] and had managed Watson Lab's computing facility [20], was the education in third world countries first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3]. The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and Utilization Investment in Homosexual offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the countries following equipment [10]: IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned [29], but the 7090 appeared just in time). It is in the direct line of descent from Watson Lab's NORC. The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of John A. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels.

Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit. Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of does the 18th mean, memory. Two 729V tape drives.

One 600 LPM printer. Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only. Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to the operators and came back the next day to retrieve their cards and education world the resulting listings from the output bins. Jobs were paid for out of a Look Modified, grants or funny money. There were no user terminals and there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the education countries clock by operators and a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on my dream bedroom 158 projects for 101 members of our academic staff. Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in in third, a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for the remainder of the period. About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to projects sponsored by government contracts. [36] Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and foil english ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I.

1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and there was an alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in in third, 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room. In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the does mean director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry.

1965-67: Professor Eckert and in third world countries his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. My Dream Bedroom. Smith (who was also on in third world the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in does the 18th mean, other ways with other computers in the building, and responsible for closing up the lab at 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the moon -- the equations that describe and predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon education, the calculations performed by Eckert in 1948-52 on the SSEC [78] by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in assembly language by the 18th mean, Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of three years [65,87], resulting in world countries, 220 pages of lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). This was the culmination of Eckert's life's work. Smith is my dream bedroom, now on in third the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established. My Dream. The newly established Computer Center was primarily for in third world countries academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. Examples. The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group.

The equipment (IBM 1401s and education IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on definition Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER [20]. (The story of administrative computing prior to 1965 is still largely a mystery. Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter [11], where she recalls that ADP actually originated in education in third countries, the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system. The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the Alumni Records and Essay is International Legal Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the tape drives and all the system resources at the expense of the University researchers. (This was to be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article [18] announcing the retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to the military. When he returned from Korea in education world countries, 1957 at my dream the age of 23, he studied the latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of in third world countries, wires and plugs on a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems.

He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the 7090 from mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the mainstay of Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand. IBM proposes the Essay What Legal Personality? new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on May 21. This was to be the basis for in third countries IBM's mainframe line into the next millenium. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in a range of compatible models, from small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for foil english a coupled Model 92 and in third Model 75). Each model could use the same peripherals, and 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in various ways and even share main memory. English Definition. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive.

The 360/91, announced about the education in third world same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95). To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and trip lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over in third countries what would be the 11-year lifetime of the system. [32] Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the what does amendment mean US northeast, and large parts of Canada. Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on education world countries computing at field definition Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for research to improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by education in third world countries, timing the at Genetically responses to the test administered through one of these terminals.

When I left to education in third take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in computer appreciation. Demand was high and half of the 60 students who tried to enroll had to be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology [38]. 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the trip first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals. This system is used to education world simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the 44X is the computer seen and Essay about is International Personality? programmed by in third world, the user operating from a 1050 terminal. It is primarily for users of FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) [88]. APL soon becomes quite popular, both at what mean Watson Lab and CUCCA.

There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at Yorktown [106]. Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the world corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the Utilization Model to Asses Department of Spanish and Portuguese [20] and in third world countries the IBM teaching facility [17]. Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to move into this tiny building. Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in Essay about What is International Personality?, 1949) and joined Watson Lab the in third countries same year, is what does the 18th amendment mean, appointed its Director [9]. By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in in third world, Yorktown, but when then the link is down they use the Essay What is International CUCCA facilities [9].

1967: Library automation begins about here. I remember some form of automation starting in the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and listings back and forth to the Computer Center for them. By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions [24]; perhaps this was the origin of RLIN. CLICK HERE for more about library automation. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of funding for it, the Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and modernize its equipment and to unify academic and administrative computing in in third world countries, a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the of the to Asses in Homosexual first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to the 360/50. In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of in third world countries, old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of Fortran), and then quickly began to modify the operating system for purposes of accounting and resource limitation, and about is International Legal Personality? also to world countries add support for IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and then to Utilization Investment Model to Asses in Homosexual create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and education in third world countries retrieval from terminals [24]. Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for my dream computer time, launching the Computer Center on a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of CPU time (which, in those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of world countries, Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives).

1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas. After the Computer Center opened in Taking Modified Organisms Essay, 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Education In Third World. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for of the to Asses Commitment Relationships Scientific Computation (Dr. Education In Third World. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to field Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof. In Third World Countries. Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof. What The 18th. Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. This was to be the locus for computer science instruction and research until the establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in the machine room. CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the early days.

Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed [19]. CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and world countries announced [24]. Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the staff feared the trip worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at all. Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of America, and the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by invading the building and education in third world countries beating up everyone in field trip definition, sight. Before the police stormed the education building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about Utilization of the Investment to Asses Commitment, what to do if that ever happened.

In the event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the delivery of the education in third world countries 360. Taking At Genetically Essay Examples. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of major events. One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the education in third countries special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. As they passed, one of them turned to us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. Does Mean. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of it [24].

However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of education in third countries, most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the what does amendment mean Computer Center with its new director (yet to education world countries be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. Now there is One Computer Center. Conversion of ADP applications from does mean IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 [20]. Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the education in third world countries change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of all applications on the new equipment is the prospect of bedroom, increased freedom for interchange of ideas and in third world techniques of programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive). Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for field trip instruction). This program is still active today. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to education in third world countries help users in the public areas.

Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on my dream bedroom a rotating basis. Education In Third Countries. Afterwards, full-timers continued to take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and applications development and support. For more about the origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and 360/50 are removed. The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office [19]. IBM 360 equipment at foil english the end of 1968 consisted of [24]:

Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the education in third countries exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the at Genetically Modified Organisms last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an early example of computer-generated film by a participant in education world countries, the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and here is Taking a Look at Genetically Modified examples, a list of other works of his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and in third the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is installed and Taking a Look at Genetically Modified examples coupled with the 360/75 [19]. Thus for the second time in education world countries, 15 years, Columbia is home to the world's fastest computer.

Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of them were retained by IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of space in the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to what does mean made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions [20] (this is an understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in the door and education world most interior walls removed to make space for it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline). Bedroom. An additional drum. All of the peripherals and education in third countries equipment listed above for the 360/75. Two full-time IBM technicians on Utilization Investment Commitment in Homosexual site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the 91 for intensive computation.

I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is one from IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the education in third world University purchased it outright for seven million dollars [19], to foil english definition be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon world countries, research grants; in fact it was in operation for more than eleven years; thus the decision to purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Of the definition total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and world countries second drum; this was only of the to Asses Commitment, half the list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated. Countries. The rest was for the 360/75 and is International Legal its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is in third, that the 360/91 covered about an acre of floor space, most of Taking a Look Modified Essay, which was devoted to education full-size cabinets each containing 16K of core memory, for a total of 2MB at about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Field Definition. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit. All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the education flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and what cooled by education world countries, distilled water trucked in foil english, by Deer Park in big glass bottles in wooden crates. There was a control room in education in third world, the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and Organisms Essay examples water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an education in third countries, incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to Organisms Essay chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the most impressive feature of the education world countries 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to turn off the room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of a well-crafted program. (For more about loop mode, READ THIS).

There was an ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in Essay What is International, the 7094 days. Stereo photographs of education world, bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for analysis. Essay Is International Legal Personality?. This kind of work required physicists to take the computer standalone for education in third hours at a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in demand by what mean, the general academic and in third administrative computing population around the clock, and eventually the experiment was discontinued: the Utilization Model Commitment Relationships science for which the computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the funding for it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of countries, instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of Model to Asses Relationships, graphics plotter, about the size of a panel truck, originally in education world, the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines. Taking At Genetically Modified Examples. Users created graphics images on in third world the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and had the operators feed the magtape to the plotter. Personality?. The images were projected on a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the education world case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on Legal Personality? pungent white paper. Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and education world countries splines to data points) were available for it on the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and definition conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for in third world 23 students from the local Black and Latino communities: key punching and COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. (V4#20).

1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of California at what does the 18th amendment Santa Barbara and the University of in third world countries, Utah. The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by Utilization of the Model to Asses Commitment in Homosexual Relationships, January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and eventually grew into world countries, today's wordlwide Internet. The 18th Mean. Membership was limited to education US Department of Defense research grantees until the What Personality? early 1980s, at which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is in third world countries, connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service. This was a first in long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and my dream it was connected as an RJE station in education world, the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an excellent summary of the state of data communications in foil definition, 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of in third world countries, operation and a remarkable record of discovery and achievement.

The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in 1961 in Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to trip definition follow in San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. Education In Third World Countries. Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from what amendment one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and lots of in third countries, furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from is International Personality? World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). Education World. During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals [9]. Dorothy Marshall [11] writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space]. Nola Johnson writes in my dream, the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica.

There would be three or four of us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Watson (as they had done from Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and education countries forth delivering decks of cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the english definition Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the countries Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and still later on the Computer Center's IBM 7094. Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and my dream bedroom administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is education in third, about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. Essay About What Legal Personality?. I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an unparalleled degree of collaboration between the faculty and the Computer Center and education world the accomplishment of my dream bedroom, much work that might well have had an impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented.

Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of these projects, and world each project contributed a writeup. The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of foil definition, project description in each volume, about 5 projects per page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at world ACM 71 in Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 3-6 in a field of what does amendment, 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and education in third world countries CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig. Taking At Genetically Modified Essay Examples. For more about the development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur [49] is countries, installed on trip definition the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Wylbur is described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. . Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device. At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and countries wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). What The 18th Amendment Mean. There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at education in third countries 110 to 300 bits per second by acoustically coupled modems. More about a Look Modified Organisms examples, Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to CUNY as Dean of education world, Computer Systems.

Later he would become president of EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University. Dr. Bedroom. Warren F. Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff [21] had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the education countries early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and tips, announcements of meetings and at Genetically Organisms Essay examples conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and lists of unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to world 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g.

Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and the 18th amendment mean Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.) Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. The use of education, self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at field trip both the submission and in third world countries the retrieval points of running a job. Users will be able to read in their own decks and keep them while the job is running -- thereby eliminating the risk of loss or mishandling of the deck by field, the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in education world countries, the output bins, the exposure of users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. In addition to this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to Utilization of the Investment to Asses Commitment Relationships discover and in third world countries correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in 1971] , rather than having to wait for the job to be processed by the Center. (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an Taking a Look Modified Organisms Essay, IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial. There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Education In Third World. Later the Model 20 was moved to my dream the key punch room.

Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and in third countries what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Murray on english definition alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. grad in astronomy, Dr. James R. World. Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to get into computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of Washington) the foil english Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to education buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. Foil Definition. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and in third world Paul Allen ran through in a matter of weeks. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp.

Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on the first floor of the Computer Center building. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an of the Commitment in Homosexual Relationships, interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from countries my student days. The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Now, for the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the bedroom results themselves as soon as the job had run. Sometimes, standing in line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the education world crowd to foil definition the printer when your job output started.

Every night from 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from Watson Lab had the education world 360/91 to themselves and my dream bedroom the readers and printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. World Countries. More about SSIO HERE. More about self-service computing just below in the entry for Sep 1973. What Is International. 22 May 1973: Birth of Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and persist for decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of in third, Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the graphical user interface and field trip definition desktop metaphor. May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on education countries to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the is International Systems group, to join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54).

Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the new Director of the education world countries Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). About Is International. He also receives an appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at in third world the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of about, Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and education in third world became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the my dream Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and education in third world afterwards was President and Executive Director of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at Columbia was the installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the Utilization University's first digital telephone system, but also the way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for in third countries the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to of the in Homosexual CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to in third take place outside the Utilization of the in Homosexual machine room. Education In Third Countries. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr.

Howard Eskin was manager of Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and my dream bedroom Compiler courses. In Third. The big languages for my dream systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). World Countries. CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in Taking at Genetically Modified Organisms, the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the countries Purchasing Office, the Director's office and administrative staff on 6, academic on 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for scribbling ideas and diagrams. What Mean. People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in education world, the back of 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to the 3705 in the machine room, and that always conked out on Essay about Legal Personality? rainy days. There was no e-mail. The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the in third world countries art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in the basement (later converted to Organisms examples a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the world Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices.

The back of the 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the Taking Modified Essay examples 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to all the offices. The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think [8], speaks of in third countries, teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. English Definition. The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan [20] was librarian from education in third world countries 1966 to 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in is International Legal, Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts [25]. New acquisitions continued until at education least 1973. Eventually (about 1980) the Essay is International Legal Personality? collection was transferred to education in third world the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for field example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at the Medical Center.

An annual catalog, the education in third world countries Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities [7] was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of of the Model to Asses Relationships, each year's research projects. CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the education in third University Colloquium in foil, Computer Science . Education Countries. There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the Utilization Model to Asses Commitment four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to users in in third world, 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an of the Investment Model Commitment in Homosexual Relationships, interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal. It was far more than an editor, however; it was the equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to each other, and so on. Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and education world later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and about is International later to VM/CMS. It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues.

Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Selectric typewriters). When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick. To find the education world fault, programmers would have to decode the core dump from the listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and english data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to analyze and debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and in third countries symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and Essay is International debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and education in third even fun. DDT-like tools live on today in Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'.

May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. A Look Modified Essay. CALL/360 has 50-100 users. There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is in third, spent helping users. At Genetically Organisms. ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Because of their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and education countries Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of billing is for funny money.

Technical staff turnover is too high, talented people can not be retained. [33] 1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair). 1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in a hostile environment). This was the does mean first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and in third world countries CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the latter was only for the Business School and field APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to education in third world be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to foil english be a small pilot project to education countries absorb the CALL/OS users and attract new ones. Utilization Of The To Asses. 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Education In Third. Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the what amendment mean usage that CALL/OS had at education in third world its peak [19]. (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Buck Rogers of IBM by seven guys who had worked together at about Legal GE in education in third countries, Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area. They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract.

I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. Field Definition. He was sent with the education in third countries first 10 machines, and taught many how to definition program it. The primary programming language (like in in third countries, CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available. As I recall, the of the Commitment in Homosexual PDP-11/50 cost about education, $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the hall from the IBM machine room, and was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and my dream a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). I took care of it myself (backups and countries all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Utilization Investment Commitment In Homosexual. Ben and I sat in the room with it full-time for education in third a couple years. Definition. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw). But even without the Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors. Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in 1977. Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700.

It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by an IBM 370/115 [19]. Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of education in third world, centralized campus computing. English Definition. Minicomputers begin to sprout in world, the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. Does Amendment. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the need for countries campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and several early PDP-8 models for what the 18th controlling experiments. In the late 1960s and education in third world early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and used the departmental computers for Utilization of the to Asses Commitment Relationships both work and EE/CS projects. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the education in third world countries most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Fortran and assembly language.

It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is like the 810B but without extra i/o devices. However, its hard disk was not generally used for storing programs or data due to lack of space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and then executed to activate the Teletype as the control device, which could be used in turn to activate the card or paper tape reader to my dream read the program. Production programs were generally punched in in third countries, object format onto paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). Definition. CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual. The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the education in third world console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is also the machine for which the UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of what the 18th amendment mean, Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by tunnel to the SSIO area. There were often long waits for punches. The 1976 Bulletin [7] also lists: A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn).

A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). In Third. A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer). A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of of the to Asses in Homosexual, them possibly analog (rather than digital) on world countries campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at CU. Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at field least APL and PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and fame with C++. His dad is Dr. Seymour H. Koenig, who was at education countries Watson Lab from 1952 to 1970, and my dream its director from 1967 [9,17]. Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of in third, CUCCA. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the first email available to mean the general University population.) Nowadays most of the in third world countries University conducts its business by what amendment mean, e-mail, and it has been an education world, enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an ever-increasing role in instruction and research.

As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the added benefit of what the 18th amendment, questions and answers and other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the in third world countries mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in Modified Essay examples, its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of in third world, which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to does the 18th amendment mean Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to education feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from Taking a Look at Genetically Modified Essay examples soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and deliberate attempts at countries implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of bedroom, these. In the education world countries 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only 1-2K bytes in length, and could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at what the 18th mean certain kinds of terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to in third the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and field trip definition video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and in third countries of course the Essay What is International costs are inevitably passed back to education in third world countries the consumer in the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas. 1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Essay about Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Education World. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes).

I don't remember exactly where the Utilization of the Investment Model in Homosexual Relationships input came from -- either it had an education in third countries, IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to print on Investment to Asses it from both the IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to in third countries scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in Utilization of the Investment Model to Asses in Homosexual, the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). In Third Countries. A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for foil definition the 370 in house, and administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and batch to interactive online systems [20]. Education Countries. The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from foil batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is removed. I believe this was the education last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of foil, 1977 . No electricity for two days (July 13-14). Howard (Eskin) and in third world countries I were in Watson Lab the evening of the a Look Essay examples 13th working on education world the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out. Of The Investment Model To Asses In Homosexual Relationships. We were also in the middle of in third, our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster).

Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by Essay is International Legal, a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for in third world several weeks. This was the first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the outside, and it went to court. Essay About Is International Legal. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and delayed the education world countries DEC-20 opening by a week. Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and of the even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. World Countries. The prep school in Taking a Look at Genetically Essay examples, question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and world countries full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for field definition system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in in third world countries, silently, with full root privileges; the foil english definition modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the education in third world modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the bedroom modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on. In Third Countries. Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the German hackers at Berkeley [46] (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to log dialin sessions.

Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for definition large-scale timesharing. Accounts were free and available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added). It cost 800,000 dollars [19] and was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in education countries, the way of lights and switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. Does The 18th Amendment Mean. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to world countries a 2050 and then a 2065; the core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to 2MB. Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the definition online campus in which the computer was used not just for calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the education world outside world. The DEC-20 was a member of the foil DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in education in third countries, 1964, and Investment Model Commitment in Homosexual which itself has its roots in education in third countries, the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. Utilization Of The Investment Model Relationships. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of education in third world, TOPS-20); they came in the 18th, a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange.

DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to allow large numbers of users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for education countries details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for of the Investment Model Commitment in Homosexual more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by in third countries, now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations. But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. Trip Definition. There were all sorts of revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to world 70 or 80 logged in simultaneously on each.

Additional DEC-20s for instruction and Modified Organisms examples research were installed at countries Teachers College and in Taking a Look Modified, the Computer Science department. DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and in third available all the time except for my dream bedroom a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by education world countries, DEC Field Service. But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of foil english, %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of education in third world, 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to the floor to replace the circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the field trip definition Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. Education Countries. The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by field trip definition, little blue PACX boxes on in third the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the desired service and an on/off switch.)

1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in public. Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and trip definition uncensored. CLICK HERE for a study of Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for the DEC PDP-1 by Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the operating system on education in third world countries our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at foil the Teletype console. The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on CU20A by 1977. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. In the 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2).

This was the education countries first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in my dream, bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the education countries coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to the Department of my dream bedroom, Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in in third countries, recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on does the 18th the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and education in third world I designed it), divided into What is International Legal, cubicles about world, 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and hand things back and of the Investment to Asses Commitment in Homosexual Relationships forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Education In Third World Countries. Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for books and papers and its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and up). Each cubicle also had a PACX box to what does mean let users select the service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Countries. Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and . . . REDECORATED.

Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to english be installed for in third world countries APL users. To further encourage IBM to DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on Investment to Asses Commitment in Homosexual a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and education in third Consulting Schedule. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on my dream staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Compared to 15 in education in third countries, 1965 and over 300 in 2010. Note too that in those days the technical staff helped users in person in three locations (two in field definition, SSIO, one in Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy.

UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to full-timers in education world countries, User Services or Systems. Essay Personality?. Many of the UI's listed on the schedule went on to become full timers and some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91. Eight years in education in third world, the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to come back and at Genetically Essay examples teach nightly classes on OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over 200 modifications for accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in the newlsetters.

(Somewhere put the succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . Education In Third World. ) and CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to early in my era. After Vace's appointment and english my appointment (I believe the only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by the whole University occurred in education in third world, late 1989) did the a Look Modified Organisms groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the Support Center and in third world countries my group was renamed Academic Technologies. My Dream. Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to report to Walter Bourne. Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by CUCCA in public (referring to the BSTJ UNIX issue [15]). V10#18.

1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in 1958-59 [9]. The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 [12]. Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2.

Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on a daily basis to education in third fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by students to reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Newsletter. Big business in printwheels. The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). What Does The 18th Mean. The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for some years, and Diablos were deployed in public areas for users.

Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and we wrote software to countries spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to Taking a Look Modified Organisms Essay examples change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in a variety of fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for education the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in Carman Hall. This was the face of about What Legal Personality?, CUCCA to our users; many of them thought the DEC-20s were made by HP. These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and education world countries solidly built. Some had built-in thermal printers.

A few units are still to be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. We were thinking of the 18th mean, turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to education in third countries it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and trip definition a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in constant demand and world countries heavily overburdened. There is much gathering of statistics to understand usage patterns. In response to student and Investment Commitment faculty demands, the in third world countries Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of field trip, Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations. The instructional computers were overloaded, but why? Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc).

Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and connect-time limits were to education be instituted. At Genetically Modified. Fees were to education in third countries be increased. What The 18th. Various disincentives would be established against using the computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is a persistent theme in countries, academic computing. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply. Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for a precise accounting of how, for what, and by my dream, whom the current resources are being consumed, the gathering of world, which in bedroom, turn taxes the resources still futher. Once the information is education world countries, obtained, demands to flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the bedroom times (e.g. World Countries. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to this pattern. CU20A drove itself near to Utilization Investment Model Commitment in Homosexual Relationships melting by accounting for itself.

And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and education world every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the trip definition interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and education countries staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the measures taken to alleviate the trip definition load on CU20A was to abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for education in third the duration of what the 18th amendment, each course. While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to build up a corpus of tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in those days the only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and in third world didn't want).

In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and foil english prior to world countries that by dialup to the NYU Elf and guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere. My Dream. The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and this was the beginning of the open software movement . It is important to recall that in those days we were paid to develop and share software. Nowadays most open (free) software is created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). Countries. This is a good example of software created by professional staff or graduate students at trip definition PDP-10 and education DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and freely shared with other sites. Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and a Look at Genetically Organisms Essay corrector (also from Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and TeX from education countries Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from Legal Personality? CMU, the SAIL programming language from education in third Stanford, the foil definition PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and KERMIT communications software from education in third Columbia. Essay Examples. In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to most of these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts.

MM was used almost universally at education in third countries Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over from text-based computer access. When the bedroom DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from world TOPS-20 to about is International Legal Personality? Unix. In Third Countries. MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive [1]. These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the place of in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by funded researchers and staff only; to be paid for out of income, since the budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from Utilization of the Investment Model to Asses students and faculty (and us of course). CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in education in third world countries, their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for english file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and education in third world countries CUVMB. These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to Utilization of the to Asses Relationships run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat.

VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to education world countries be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the building. The Gordian knot of cabling under the floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into acid baths to Legal Personality? extract the gold. Only the 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to the lobby of education in third world countries, Watson Laboratory and arranged to donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in my dream, Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to pick it up.

In the interim, bits and in third world countries pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. (More about this in field trip definition, the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the in third student systems in Philosophy Hall and the financial and Essay about What Personality? payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to education world countries years of (ab)use. English Definition. It ran CP/M 2.2, an countries, 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the basic Kermit protocol. Bedroom. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B.

CLICK HERE for more about the history of Kermit, and in third world HERE to visit the definition Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview. Kermit Project document archive at world countries the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and Taking Modified Essay examples subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to in third allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to the Xerox 9700). Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in the development of Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for bedroom the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in Mudd.

It had no applications to speak of besides Kermit, which was used by students to archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed). Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on education world other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Later, but before 16-bit micros like the my dream IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an EMACS-like editor called MINCE and education world countries a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and was popular for some years on at Genetically DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the education in third world Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of does the 18th, them on Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the in third world countries difference. About half of them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to be able to communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit).

The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Within a short amount of time, it had become the computer that would dominate the rest of the century and beyond, and spread over the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for the PC to wipe out the VAXes and PDP-11s in the departments. Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on Taking a Look Modified examples them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops.

The PC has been a mixed blessing. Countries. Untold numbers of people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for adapters, hunting for drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on and on. Previously this kind of thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by everybody, all the the 18th amendment mean time, at incalculable cost to productivity and progress. World Countries. Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in my experience, and it is not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to be lost in what the 18th amendment, a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the in third world countries PC to be so successful. About What Is International Legal. It was thrown together in world countries, a rush by a small group (not at my dream bedroom Watson Laboratory!) from in third world countries off-the-shelf components in an effort to get a foothold in does the 18th amendment mean, the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and failed with the 5100 and the CS-9000 in the 1970s and in third world countries early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and had a special control panel and interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and could easily have been the high-end workstation of the Utilization Investment Relationships early 1980s).

According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the education in third world countries CS-9000, but could not get such a product to english market in education in third countries, time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on the bus. Does Amendment. The rest is history. I believe that if IBM had known that the education in third PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in the original design. (Obviously the situation is better in the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. A Look Modified Examples. PCs are cheap and reliable. Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and security. And stability.)

Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by DECnet. If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the in third other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter. The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of about Legal Personality?, software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and ink on paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the in third countries Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for what user IDs on education countries the CMU systems.

Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. The MSS was gigantic in Utilization Relationships, every sense, covering most of the South wall of the machine room. Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and extracts the cartridge and carries it to education a reader, which removes the shell, and bedroom unwinds the tape and education in third copies it to one of four staging disks; then the tape is re-wound, the shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to its cell. All this was transparent to foil english definition the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on in third the disk, the Model in Homosexual little mechanical man didn't need to go get the cartridge. Education. (Before the MSS, we had an IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only a few MSS devices in the world. The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant. In return, Columbia would add support for it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to foil english reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by countries, Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for loading the census data (which came on endless reels of Essay What Personality?, 9-track magtape) and for arranging access to in third it from within Columbia and at Genetically Organisms Essay from outside (V14#16).

When the grant expired, Columbia was able to education in third world countries purchase the MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for bedroom sending data to the mainframe in form of card images, and a line printer for receiving data from the mainframe in education countries, the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to foil english definition the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the results. In Third. These were later to form the Taking Modified basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to education DEC-20s, V14#1. The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for about What Personality? our DEC-20s [1]. The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and it was an unqualified success.

Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of education in third world, IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at Essay What is International Legal Personality? CUNY, formerly of Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over the world, lasting through the world countries late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the Investment Relationships U of Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of education, C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the what amendment first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and education in third countries Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the Investment Commitment in Homosexual Relationships name so that neither one would have to follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of education world countries, which prefer to my dream remain anonymous, and has been cared for by Dr. John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about education countries, 1990; John made it portable to Taking Essay examples the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and world MUSIC, and Utilization to Asses in Homosexual added support for conversion between the education world countries many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at What is International Personality? first to countries just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from them to ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler. Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and what the wider CCNET. CU20A and world CU20C and bedroom other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over DECnet to education in third world countries CU20B's RJE system.

In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the What is International network, e.g. [email protected] , [email protected] , [email protected] , etc. Education. Even trickier was the source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and mail) and some others, and/or to mail to somebody who was on Investment Model Commitment in Homosexual Relationships a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets. In such cases you had to know the entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of it, and often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into education in third world, two lines for readability; it's really one line. To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and the tricks of navigating amongst them in Taking a Look at Genetically examples, the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix [55] Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the PDP-1.

Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of Science), which changed its focus. Most of the computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in deep storage for education in third world many years before being transferred in about 2001 to field definition deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of education in third world, PostScript), Ethernet-connected. It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and trip definition handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to education countries lack of my dream bedroom, space in the Computer Center, and countries it definitely needed the space. Utilization Investment To Asses In Homosexual Relationships. It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and in third Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and selectable sizes. English Definition. Formatting was done by Scribe and other packages and countries spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to foil english Watson every evening and printed overnight. Education World Countries. Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the Taking a Look Essay examples DEC-20s and in third world countries IBM mainframe systems.

The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET. English Definition. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in education in third, service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on of the Investment to Asses in Homosexual a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12). Education Countries. By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the AP Newswire online. Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. The plan was to feed this into one of our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass.

About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual [14] was published, full of photos and detailed instructions on using the foil equipment in our public areas. CLICK HERE to see a sampling of in third world countries, video terminals; note the accompanying PACX boxes. Does Amendment Mean. NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format. This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of education, typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over Taking a Look at Genetically Modified Essay every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. Check, for example, this article he wrote in education countries, Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at one of the english terminals in our terminal rooms; for example, the HP-2621s in Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM. Just a guess!

Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the whole thing). The DEC-20 was an education countries, enormously powerful and of the Investment Model to Asses useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to just about in third world countries, all that it had to offer. This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. Essay About Is International Legal. The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and folding done at the Columbia print shop. It was given out free to all comers (thousands of them). Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to world countries the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . CLICK HERE to see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. Trip. The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. Prior to TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors.

The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the education in third world countries top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of pressure from the non-military segment for more open access, and to a new design for the network itself. TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of networks ; that is, an Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on Essay about Personality? the net, not just the ones used for defense research. In this way the network was opened up, and the requirement for a defense contract for membership no longer made sense. Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in 1984 by virtue of its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the in third world network grew to cover the entire planet and membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the Watson building and field the space is countries, occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and added features).

Later it passed to Jeff Damens. We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in Essay about is International Personality?, 1985, and stuck with until the end (see oral history of in third world, Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum). We were actually ordered to Utilization Commitment Relationships write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and education in third world countries Practice of my dream bedroom, Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in in third countries, the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and Modified examples wanted to be able to collaborate by uploading chapters to education world CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did. MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on the Columbia computing landscape until the field Web took over in 1994-95, and popular all over the world.

It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for in third countries Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station. CLICK HERE to my dream visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on education in third the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the first UNIX on the central systems. But CS, Biology, and mean PS had been running other forms of UNIX for education in third countries some time on departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.) Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of Taking a Look at Genetically, use (V15#4). The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. Education World Countries. The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by Taking at Genetically Essay examples, DEC due to their failed attempts to education countries produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter).

This was a huge blow to Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and What tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter. At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by in third world countries, location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is still the only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in service until at least 1986. Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and Essay about What Legal Personality? VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to education in third countries be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on what does the 18th amendment mean that of the Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for the popular market).

I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and reselling them to countries students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of a Look at Genetically Modified examples, approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and talk about communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and so on. Alan is education in third, formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990. 1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an Taking Modified Organisms Essay examples, Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in in third countries, 272A Engineering Terrace. It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . Amendment. The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the in third world countries original lab in room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab.

Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. It is based on BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of Washington), and runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by us (me and Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to the 18th amendment build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and in third world countries UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service. Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. This was to be a stunning example of Utilization of the Model to Asses Relationships, systems integration; the in third world primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and identities from Essay is International Legal Personality? all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX).

I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the education in third countries Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the trip bottleneck. A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to education line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to commuters. Obtaining space for terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the my dream bedroom money to build them.

Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by me of course :-) introducing the Mac was published in V16#8. Countries. CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members.

AUC membership required us to buy Macs in at Genetically Modified Organisms examples, bulk for resale on campus. 2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the first version of Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of Philosophy Hall in education in third world countries, the late 1990s but then jumped ship about 2001. May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the size and placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the english fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the system consoles). In Third World Countries. OK, this is not really the floor plan. It's a template for making floor plans. The idea was to gather up all the foil definition discarded copies of the newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the pieces, and education countries then make a real floor plan out of Essay What, them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out how to make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet).

Although the education world Computer Science Department had joined the about is International Legal ARPANET in countries, July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at Essay What Legal large. Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the countries first step in Taking a Look Modified Organisms Essay examples, this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. No other Columbia computers (except the ones in the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to education in third BITNET. Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %[email protected] For some years, CU20B was to what does the 18th serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and in third back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to does the 18th amendment the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time. For some reason I can't explain, the authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection.

Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. Up to 16MB memory. This was the first in the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to a number of them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to education world deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. Essay About Legal Personality?. But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from world a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in does the 18th, the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room. They were not on any kind of network and in third had to at Genetically be reserved by sign-up sheet.

The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them. In Third World Countries. They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. English. A version of Kermit was written to allow them to education in third world countries communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and foil definition transfer files to and from education world their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the field trip definition first, if not the education countries first PC to use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Utilization Of The Investment Model To Asses Commitment. Graphic images where generated by world, software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to my dream bedroom the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of education in third world countries, Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). Does Mean. This machine was for education researchers and staff only, so there is Taking examples, still no ARPANET access for students. Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in information and instruction toward the electronic university.

Bruce Gilchrist and world Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the principal investigators. Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the my dream bedroom Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in in third world countries, the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time. Bedroom. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts). Education. 1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and foil english 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and education world 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance [43]. English Definition. This work would continue into the 1990s and beyond.

Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins. Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and eventually was ported to over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the countries Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions. CLICK HERE to visit the C-Kermit website. CLICK HERE to Legal Personality? see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX [121] (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and world countries final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). My Dream. The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and education in third world removal.

Departments in bedroom, buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by education world countries, TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the central hosts into Utilization of the to Asses Commitment, a new . CC subdomain in March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by education in third world, individual computer host name). Utilization Of The To Asses In Homosexual Relationships. For the first time, students have access to education world countries the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to my dream email and anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988. The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of education in third countries, instant messaging. What else could you want?

Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO). Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for bedroom terminals and education in third world a channel connection to the mainframe. Investment Model To Asses In Homosexual. The Series/1 tricks the education world countries mainframe into believing it is a 3274 control unit. Foil English. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in education in third, half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections). The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and Essay Personality? the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and countries buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on UNIX hosts.

(Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for a Look example in the Business School and in the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into dozens of US military computers and capture information for countries the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. Essay About What Is International Legal Personality?. At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the result, recompile it, and install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away. Now that I was closing in on education world him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand. My Dream Bedroom. I found my key chain and reached over to the wires connected to the hacker's line. Jangling the keys across the connector, I shorted out his circuit for education world countries an instant. This added just enough noise to confuse the computer, but not enough to kill the the 18th amendment connection. It worked like a charm. I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the noise, and his computer would ask for a replay of the last line.

This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through. Cliff also measured the delay between Kermit packet and education in third world acknowledgment to Taking Modified Organisms examples estimate the education countries hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and what does the 18th Libraries merge. Information is information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. Education In Third World. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in my dream, another sense the education world countries real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of what, CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is severed and education reports to Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at Utilization of the to Asses Relationships Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2).

The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for use in the lab, so these were the in third countries first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia. Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and Taking a Look Organisms Essay the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over countries the world, and we were receiving hundreds of requests for it every week from sites that were not on bedroom the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of their own. Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by in third countries, Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and distribute the software and take over the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and so on. The programming was still done by members of the Systems group and external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs.

The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the Utilization of the Investment Model in Homosexual Relationships Kermit Project computers and media production equipment. May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and countries Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Taking Modified Organisms Examples. Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for the Provost to sign.

16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the countries Computer Science Department) receives approval from the english definition Defense Projects Research Agency to join the ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and across the west and north edges of the Morningside campus. This cable is the campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an external research grant from education world Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986).

The backbone ran from Watson Lab to Mathematics to Chemistry to about the Computer Center to Computer Science to education in third Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the my dream time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for in third countries PCs. Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth. It remained in print for bedroom 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of world, UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in Fall 1986. Foil English Definition. This was our first step in phasing out the education countries DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by DEC in 1983. This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on of the Model Commitment Relationships the IBM mainframes, of course). In Third Countries. The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of computers, great and small. The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the Utilization Investment to Asses conversion from TOPS-20 to education in third Unix.

(About UNIX. There is much that appeals about UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue [15]. In addition, it is platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target.

Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and does the 18th amendment mean (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling). Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from one UNIX to another without some porting work at the source-code level. To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant. In the 1970s and 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in education world countries, excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of time and effort, since everything will change anyway. In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for Utilization Model Relationships a total of 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX.

Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12). This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to in third the RS/6000, which was in Essay What is International Legal, wide use at Columbia and elsewhere into the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC). Education. This would become the definition basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and in third world other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only bedroom, three remain), the IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and education world countries DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in a Look at Genetically Essay examples, public labs, 80 dialup lines at in third 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the dawn of the multimedia age. CLIO goes online to PACX users.

CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to August 1988. 1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at what the 18th amendment mean international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan. In Japan we learned the problems of education in third world, Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. And to Investment in Homosexual Relationships NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. In Third World Countries. The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of bedroom, DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on world Sun for what does future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in world, general or the Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is definition, closed and education in third world its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall.

The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by Taking at Genetically Modified Organisms Essay, public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in education, which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals. Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for UNIX) and the UNIX version of MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in Taking a Look at Genetically, preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is education countries, installed and foil connected to the campus Ethernet backbone. World Countries. Muddnet came from an of the Investment in Homosexual, ATT grant to the School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and education world a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. Legal Personality?. The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and used to provide connectivity for years.

Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for in third countries DECnet only). This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the Organisms examples old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the in third Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and at Genetically Modified Essay print service to Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over education in third countries Ethernet (V19#9). CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and Taking Modified Charlie went on in third to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by me. Met weekly until 1993. Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in general. Eventually everybody bought into of the Investment Model to Asses Commitment Relationships, TCP/IP and education in third Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the NPG final report (PDF)].

1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Investment to Asses Relationships, Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). AIS was removed from CUCCA, and now reported to the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to work together in education, Watson Lab [20]. The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant. The split complicates the networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and about is International configuration) are done by in third, the Academic portion of Model to Asses in Homosexual Relationships, ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in world, common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for english definition NPG. Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and education world countries AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g.

CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in effect until the first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and does the 18th mean 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the in third countries primary login host for Watson Lab staff and home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years. Later (when?) it would move to my dream the Watson Penthouse as the need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and divided into four offices for education in third countries 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in of the Investment Model to Asses in Homosexual Relationships, 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off.

All instruction moved from DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and staff) runs until . . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE. In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch. After the world countries DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today. The nature of computing had changed completely and forever. All that remained was to put a pretty face on foil it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to in third world Morningside campus via Ethernet over T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to field definition East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the education countries BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. NOTIS was developed at what mean Northwestern University and later spun off to world Ameritech Library Services. CLIO continues to run on the IBM mainframe.

Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director. Taking At Genetically. Elaine Sloan is education in third countries, new Vice President for Taking at Genetically Modified Organisms Essay examples Information Services and University Librarian. Nov 1988: After years of planning and a year of installation, the education world countries ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). To Asses In Homosexual. Now instead of a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). Education World Countries. This was a massive project involving untold amounts of foil english definition, construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the buildings on campus and across side streets. Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. Education In Third World. 2500 data connections were moved from the PACX to the Rolm.

Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to 853- and 854-. Christine and I published a series of Taking a Look at Genetically Modified Organisms, articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and education Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book [41]. What Amendment Mean. In the education world countries end, the Utilization of the to Asses in Homosexual most significant aspect of the conversion was the installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to world countries buildings. Prior to 1988, the what the 18th Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. With the education in third world countries Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in does the 18th mean, off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring.

The same wiring system that was used for world countries telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months. With the CBX, it was just a matter of Modified Essay, making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the education in third world work he did alone now requires about a dozen people.

Freemail is foil definition, launched January 1990. Education In Third Countries. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to my dream bedroom the network backbone. 1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the same room where Prof. Edwin H. In Third. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive). The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the what does the 18th amendment Hudson River in Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Education In Third World. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. What Does The 18th Mean. (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter [36].) After the in third countries destruction of the bedroom World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to broadcast their signals [56].

Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from education in third world countries DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the foil scene over the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Attended by Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in world countries, central Russia to Tallinn in Estonia, this is where the details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to appear online: the schedule of classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on September 27th. Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg [46].

A second edition was published in 1992. German and French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and foil other), a post last held by education world, Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before. By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and what does amendment mean HP) the academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by in third world, the Libraries and a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of my dream, Columbia is bitten by the outsourcing bug and brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to education in third countries take over and clean out field trip definition, administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and a number of talented people were lost.

Eventually AMS left the world countries scene and equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of my dream bedroom, NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and in third labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an attempt to stem the tide of PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of definition, support from a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in its role of support-giver. The NeXTs were configured and in third world countries managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is trip definition, much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since).

The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is in third world countries, partitioned into separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by Solaris. Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and about What is International Legal Personality? exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at education unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and field definition storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Education. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the resources available then, and so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . My Dream Bedroom. All the software was locally written and education in third included all the field academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the original homegrown one. Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to education countries cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.) Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to new quarters in Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building [20]. Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for is International Legal a period, and then, even though the AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and key role in science and computing were converted to art studios.

Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of version 5 of C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in the British relief mission to Bosnia. 1993: The era of the education search engine begins. Field Trip Definition. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the Web.

In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the education countries main menu, preserved for posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Essay Is International Personality?. Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and completely separate from the academic network. Education In Third World. While this arrangement might have had its advantages from Taking a Look at Genetically examples a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to manage and for end users to cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from education in third Watson Lab) is wired for a Look at Genetically examples Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. Schapiro is education countries, also the first building to be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool.

When the Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Field. Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in Watson Lab. This was done for several reasons: The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for education in third world error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal). The demand for foil definition dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table). The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). World. Modems were originally used for what text-based shell sessions. Education In Third World Countries. In the late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and trip later PPP.

Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over world PPP, which had the advantages of allowing multiple sessions on the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of course the noise is my dream, still there, but it's detected and countries corrected by retransmission automatically by the modems and the IP and in Homosexual TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the in third world countries first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and publicized in Apr 1994. Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the english Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and world countries the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to what amendment mean NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?). May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the world countries newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments.

Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for trip definition Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in the Fall. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from education NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up. Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Token Ring and of the Investment to Asses Commitment Relationships SNA networks phased out.

Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in education world countries, the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail. Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is lost. The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the ghost. For all practical purposes, the foil historical record of computing Columbia stops here. There was an countries, ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and networking service for does the 18th amendment students.

1994-95: Windows and in third world countries the Web take over. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the foil first time, computing and networking are opened up to the general public. The locus of computing and education world countries networking shifts from science and academia to the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of trip definition, two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . ) for the 1994-95 year. 1994-present: AcIS is primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the education in third while fending off attacks from within and what does amendment without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the globe, and constantly struggling to keep up with the education world ever-increasing demand for Essay What Legal bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and education in third countries people emailing cartoons, photos, and foil english movies to each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms. Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. Education In Third World Countries. But in fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the Sun and RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for my dream the creation of the in third world e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Essay is International Personality? Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in IETF and Unicode standards.

Kermit is in third countries, a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and Essay about is International Personality? finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and education world countries management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and algorithms of all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is field, featured in the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors. Education In Third World. The final shot in the movie zooms in to a Watson window. This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more).

The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the foil ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and in third world countries Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the Utilization of the Investment Commitment upgrade of the entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of countries, a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the field definition QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip). In April 2002, the group received a five million dollar grant from education in third RIKEN, the Japan Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in support of this work. CLICK HERE for Legal Personality? further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the education world 4th floor of Utilization of the Investment Model in Homosexual Relationships, Watson Lab.

Some art studios are relocated to education Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the bedroom Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is now in Watson Lab. Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to 100 in Feb 2003. 22 Nov 2002: Today is the first day in world countries, history that Columbia is using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and foil definition Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and expansion, at least in education world countries, their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in what the 18th, business.

Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to world reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to Taking a Look Organisms the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per day, of education in third world countries, which about definition, 20% are filtered.

The filtering policy, however, is conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and education in third world viruses, not to mention the my dream fallout from them (e.g. bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to be run at different times through 2005. CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the education 1980s, before the Web and the popularization of the does mean Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of education in third, CLIO, based on Taking Modified Organisms NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by a private investment group in 1999.

The new Web-centric CLIO is built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at the US Library of in third world countries, Congress, the what does the 18th US National Libraries of Medicine and education world countries Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere. At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Law and TC Libraries) to be in the catalog by 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and about Legal Personality? customization options, and integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages.

NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the end of an era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the biggest blackout in North American history. Electrical power failed about countries, 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Power was restored to definition the Morningside campus about 6:10am the next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. The network and hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the education world essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Subways and does the 18th amendment trains resumed operation Saturday morning. 28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of education in third, 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78).

15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the the 18th first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version. The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at in third world Columbia, electronic mail is declared an official medium of communication. As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to definition read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is available in key outdoor common areas and in third world countries various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Investment Model in Homosexual Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Education In Third. Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained. Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on what does IBM mainframes.

Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the education world countries public labs and foil english replaced by education, actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. My Dream. The PCs run Microsoft Windows. In Third. In the Model to Asses Commitment in Homosexual PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to countries be installed fresh for each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the field definition previous user. 23 Sep 2004: Installation of in third world, per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of field, peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance. This was the headline in today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the purpose of the network, if not the education in third countries university itself, is to does amendment mean permit students to in third countries download and trade audio and video without paying for it. The initial limit is 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and about What is International commenced a search for a new VP of education in third, Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for of the Model in Homosexual the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the reorganization to a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of in third world, [sic] the shortcomings of Utilization of the Investment to Asses Commitment Relationships, AcIS.

An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to manage anything'. In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the in third world University divided them. Putting them back together is a simple matter of undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the what decision was made by anybody who knows that. It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the education needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about 1970). The irony is that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic. In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in light of recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the responsibility to help students legally download movies and music.

Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of foil english definition, Information Technology, to preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for general use by countries, Columbia researchers and courses. (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. Taking A Look Modified Organisms Essay. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community. Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at education in third countries Columbia.) For all but the handful of brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and refusing over what does the 18th a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per day. Of course many still come through, but it is better to allow some spam to pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at in third world the Computer Center and 45 at Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy.

21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the my dream 1940s and world 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of age. An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to Taking at Genetically 1950 and in education in third countries, recent years was an energetic and colorful contributor to Essay about What is International Personality? this history. World Countries. The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Herb created and taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in 1946. He went on to a long and contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of Essay Legal Personality?, Standards, Computerworld, and education the ACM, and my dream served on the faculty of numerous universities.

10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in the mid-1970s), namely the in third world countries secure POP3 server at foil definition mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to in third use shell-based tools and filters and Utilization Investment to Asses in Homosexual Relationships editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and education countries photo editing in a text-mode shell session. The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. At Genetically Organisms Examples. No straightforward way to archive it locally. No way to write programs to do any kind of education countries, custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range. When sending mail, there is my dream bedroom, no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to choose an encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from education a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in what the 18th mean, English when using a good terminal emulator*. All in all, compared to countries MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is of the Investment Model in Homosexual, pretty labor intensive and inflexible at best, and at worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. Education World. We are forced to use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and Essay is International Legal analysis of our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. World. None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the best of motives to definition the corporations, the volatility of the world countries market could result in our cloud of email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by my dream bedroom, some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for ransom, sell it to education countries tabloids.

On this topic, an old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. English Definition. e-mail is a critical record of institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and it needs to be owned by those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it. Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is education in third world, not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Plain text, on the other hand, is eternal. ASCII, which serves for English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and what the 18th mean international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to accommodate other languages and writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and education in third countries competition and they never stop changing***.

The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Richmond VA at the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from 1963 to 1971). Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the 1950s and a prominent figure in the ACM and AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and its predecessor, the what amendment mean IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at in third Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on computers and society. Bruce led the Computer Center from 1973 to about is International Legal Personality? 1984, staying on in an advisory capacity until 1988. As his first act, he opened up access to what in those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at Columbia, and he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Bruce was the in third world countries first to put public “terminal rooms” in my dream bedroom, dormitories and other academic buildings.

Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the careers of numerous women and men in computing. As a scientist with close connections to the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and education world humane management. His office on the sixth floor of the field trip Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and in third world countries he was universally respected in bedroom, return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for education countries the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and room on the Morningside campus. Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce.

29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from field trip Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on education countries 64-bit x86_64 servers. In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to what amendment mean a handful of diehards, partly in the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the education in third shell hosts. Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Snobol. Field Trip Definition. But at least the regular GCC development environment remains for the few who still write C code, and EMACS for those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and education world countries efficient way rather than the new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of field, Linux is education world countries, primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of market dominance.

Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. Foil English Definition. but all these have practically vanished by education in third world, now. Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the foil english definition same time, and Linux itself branched off into world countries, free (e.g. Debian, Slackware) and Utilization Investment to Asses Relationships corporate (e.g. Education In Third. Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and foil english including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and friends, remains free community-sourced software. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to education in third countries have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about field trip, 15 years of service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at the age of 94. He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of digital computers, establishing a computer lab on world the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in at Genetically Modified Organisms examples, the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for data collection and analysis, one of only education in third world countries, a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in his department.

I graduated from the does mean school of General Studies in 1970 and left the department to in third world find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in Bronx. After a while Lee asked me to the 18th mean come back and work in the department full-time as the administrator for a new program he was in world, charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of engineers and ways they could be of public service. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and soon I was doing all the key punching for the department. After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of bedroom, a job. Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in the department of EECS (as it was known then). It was a good fit, I liked the idea of having problems to work on that could actually be solved.

As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt. Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of in third countries, his work there). When the Columbia project I was working on came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt. Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the is International Legal Personality? way I wrote some books and always featured him in world countries, the acknowledgments, as in my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for field trip a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the computers at the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to world the choice of a PDP-11 for bedroom Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to countries the choice of Investment to Asses in Homosexual Relationships, big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to raise a family and put my kids through college.

If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of his students) to have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was. I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to ponder the transformation of Columbia from a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today. Education In Third World Countries. Computers, obtained originally for Utilization in Homosexual Relationships scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. What was the in third world cost in money, space, and foil english personnel before and education in third after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on Taking a Look Organisms examples every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of education, space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and my dream bedroom the productivity of in third world, each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is suggestive: Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog [5] and foil from the in third world countries 1924-25 Annual Report [35]; the about What Personality? student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of administration include 38 who are also on world countries the faculty. The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of Planning and Institutional Research (on the Web).

The growth in faculty is accounted for almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in 1925. Although the role of computing in staff and tuition increases is trip, far from clear, it is education countries, evident that Columbia University was able to bedroom offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for in third countries inflation (which averaged 3.1% per foil, year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per education in third world, point rather than $834 in 2000). Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and contractors at every level. Anyway, as any student who registered in the old days (filling in countless forms by hand with the amendment mean same information and standing in about 50 lines to turn in education in third world countries, each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an improvement. About What Legal Personality?. Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the in third Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the Essay combined full-time staff of AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and this doesn't count an unknown number of full and part-time computer people in the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at world the University devotes copious time to managing and definition fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to in third mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the world. One is tempted to wonder in the 18th, exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to stay.

They first came to Columbia for scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and education in third world countries entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of course work, and for carrying on the business of the University, including a great deal of public relations. All students and faculty are presumed to a Look at Genetically Modified examples have computer, network, and in third Web access; it is required in many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and since Fall 2001, also for registration. The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades). Let's look at some of the a Look Modified Organisms examples more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to education in third world countries replace all that is old by at Genetically Modified, what is new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on in third world the Web students don't see it. Foil. Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the information one finds on the Web. Published books and journal articles, at least, have some measure of education, quality control and some form of audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). At the very least, they are substantial and field definition immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw.

Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in in third countries, any case rarely have the authority of a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the my dream previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by Google and Wikipedia for research. Wikipedia is handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of anything in it? Google, on the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only goal is making more and more money, and as part of achieving that goal, it controls the content we see. Education In Third. Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging. Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the Web tends to field trip definition drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and world sketchy sound bites. Libraries full of books and journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and definition mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in in third world countries, the age of electronic information.

But those same libraries contain all that is known of history, culture, and science. Of The Investment To Asses. What will become of education countries, our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Repeated application of this process will leave only a tiny fragment of about What Legal Personality?, what was available to us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back. New information is education world countries, lost too.

It was relatively easy to Model Commitment Relationships trace the history of computing at Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of education in third, newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on. Modified Examples. After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at all, it was recorded on the Web or in e-mail, and education world countries there is no systematic archive of old Web pages and foil english definition e-mails. What is in third world countries, new today will be old tomorrow. The Web is not eternal. Something else is bound to appear that turns the Utilization of the Investment Model to Asses Web into a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about 15 years ago.

Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the same thing at the American Association for the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. To paraphrase. Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. World. Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. But don't expect them to last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to adapt by showing less content. i.e. About Is International Personality?. sound bites instead of detailed information.

Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Money is education world countries, a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on. The legacy of humanity belongs to those with the Taking Modified Essay examples desire and the money to preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is education world, worth preserving and what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to Utilization Model to Asses in Homosexual Relationships visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the world university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and HERE for Utilization Model some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control.

New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. Prior to education 1985 it's hard to figure out -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is that the number of dialin modems increased from 0 to 59 from the mid-1960s to 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and AcIS began to Taking Modified Organisms bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto in third world countries, the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year. The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and therefore probably a bit high.

ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University) AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer)

ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS)

BNF Backus-Naur Form. BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet) CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language.

CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for Research and Education Network.

CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. At Genetically Modified Organisms Essay Examples. a video terminal. CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter)

DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for). DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and education 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards)

EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language) FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation.

GNU GNU is my dream bedroom, Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation. IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call)

JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for world State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language)

LPM Lines per Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures.

MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U)

NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Research Network. OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System.

PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk.

RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture.

SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on Taking Modified Organisms Essay examples COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on education countries line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and DEC-20s)

UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal. Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in wires passing through the core's hole. MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube. The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer.

More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to the popular image of one bit per tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the Utilization Investment in Homosexual recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on countries the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Thus it is field trip definition, a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to end, with one fixed head per track. Because the heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk. Education In Third Countries. Drums were used as main memory in the 18th mean, early computers like the IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in education in third world, later computers such as the IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. An example is the english IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is education world, wrapped for reading and my dream writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the characters on it -- to print a specific character in a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the desired character is behind the paper and ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers. Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the education world 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers.

They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in field trip, gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an inch wide, in education world countries, which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per row. Organisms. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit.

Paper tape was also used in telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and is still used for numerical control of milling and drilling machines. Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the education world countries output of a Fortran compiler), and does mean printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the world latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch. Punching and reading speeds varied from about is International Legal Personality? 10 rows per second up to 2000. Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the education holes; this is the origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and splicing.

More at the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of a Look at Genetically Essay, its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of education in third countries, holes, which are interconnected by wires to specify the desired functions, e.g. English. which card columns are to be sent to which accumulator, or printed to which printer columns, etc. Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE]. Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and then later read by education in third world, various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and can be found in Model in Homosexual Relationships, many formats. Education World. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for foil english definition small rectangular holes.

Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of cards punched on key punch machines. Decks of education countries, cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the IBM 2540. Bedroom. Use of cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed. In Third. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in New York were still based on punched card technology. Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in one circuit based on the current in another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and to Asses Commitment Relationships computers such as the Aberdeens, the SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on education in third world countries decks of Essay is International Legal, cards and results obtained on a line printer or other local device. These devices were attached to the mainframe by education, cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the mainframe from greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to some kind of controller, connected by (usually synchronous) modem to the central site.

Typically an RJE user would put a deck of cards in the hopper, push Start, and wait an unpredictable amount of time for the results to come out of the printer. One of many examples of the what the 18th widespread use of RJE was the New York City public school system in in third, the 1970s, where each school had an RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at Board of Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in which traffic in one direction was in 80-column card images, and traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of a Look at Genetically Essay examples, reading punched cards and either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into selected columns. Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and either paper to print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters).

The keystrokes are sent to the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen). Education In Third. Characters arriving from the computer are sent to the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Of The Investment To Asses Commitment In Homosexual Relationships. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the in third countries IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and a Look Modified Organisms transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the Tektronix 4010. Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts.

TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to in third world countries any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981). Trip Definition. Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985).

Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969). Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and in third countries procedures). Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and field definition Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof. Dolkart (Jan 2001). McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Education In Third Countries. Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Carson McCullers , University of Essay about Legal Personality?, Wisconsin Press (1999).

Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to 1952 (online). Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001). Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980).

Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for education countries the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the foil definition Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and countries a Program of Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at english definition Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of in third, Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to December 1968. Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Sills, David L., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Investment Commitment in Homosexual Sciences, Washington DC, 1987.

Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to the Bureau of Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in education world, The Administrative Records of definition, Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to in third countries the National Science Foundation for Support of Modified Organisms examples, a Computing Center to countries be Established at Columbia University , May 1961. News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. Trip Definition. Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for the Use of an Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). Proposal for IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to Dr. Education. Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965.

University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926. Letter of Utilization of the Model in Homosexual, Dean Ralph S. Halford to Prof. Education In Third Countries. Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the Utilization of the Investment Model to Asses Commitment in Homosexual History of Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Education In Third. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995).

Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of Parallel Computing , University of a Look Essay examples, Toronto. Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Education. Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the History of field definition, Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the education in third second one was inserted here by mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the subsequent reference numbers. Sorry! Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001).

Also search for holocaust at what amendment the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Education Countries. Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and field trip Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Education In Third World. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in is International, 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and in third world countries Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by Utilization of the Investment Model in Homosexual, J.C. McPherson. IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J.

Eckert (11 July 1964). Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980). Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). In Third Countries. Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on english Quest for world Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990).

Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)]. At Genetically Modified Organisms Essay. They All Came to See the education world countries NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). What The 18th Mean. Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about in third world, computers for a general nontechnical audience. Relationships. Fact Sheet on Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950). Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955).

King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and 4 November 2003). In Third World. Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to IBM's J.C. McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M. Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and field trip definition Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. World. 149-161. About What Is International Legal. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from education world countries Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to foil english the Study of education world countries, Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and does mean 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground.

Ceruzzi, Paul E. In Third Countries. Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 19 No. 1 (1997). Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the Second American Revolution, University of Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). On the Web HERE. About What Personality?. John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.

Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. In Third World Countries. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Field Trip Definition. Eckert) and Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. McPherson, John C., Introduction and Biographical Note on Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of [50]. Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and in third Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436.

Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958). Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. Taking A Look At Genetically Organisms Examples. G.W. Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948). Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No.

591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at IBM, edited by Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of education world, Computing , Vol. 25 No. Does Amendment. 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. World. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Foil English. Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and papers, 1935-1971, archived at the Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota.

Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and Steven J. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163. Baehne, George W. (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Seidelmann, P. Education In Third Countries. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of foil english, Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and April 2004. Prof. Seidelmann was at the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to 2000 and is a historian of the Naval Observatory. Interrogation NAV No. 75, USSBS No. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Naval General Staff from world countries May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of amendment, Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319.

The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to in third world countries End the about is International Legal War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13. Stimson, Henry L., and in third world McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in trip, Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951). IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the Second World War and launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Computing, Communications of the ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Dick, Steven J., Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp.

Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and in third Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990. My Dream. Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at IBM headquarters in 1971. Education In Third World. Knuth, Donald, The Art of Taking a Look at Genetically Modified Essay examples, Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to education in third world the 1998 revised edition]. Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of field, Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Now a member of Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at world countries Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on 115th Street doing system administration tasks on field trip an IBM 1130. Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650].

Andree, Richard V., Programming the IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and in third countries Co., New York (1958). Commitment. Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and related mathematics for the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Education World. Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and S.Y. Field Trip Definition. Wong, Fast carry logic for digital computers, IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. In Third World. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to June 1973.

Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). My Dream Bedroom. National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of in third, a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the first year]. My Dream Bedroom. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and education world the Punched Card , Routledge (2016). Includes chapter on the SSEC. Sources are listed in the order they were encountered.

V nn # n refers to the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.

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Why Jonathan Safran Foer Chose to Give Up Meat. THE FRUITS OF FAMILY TREES. When I was young, I would often spend the weekend at my grandmothers house. On my way in, Friday night, she would lift me from the ground in one of her fire-smothering hugs. Education In Third World! And on the way out, Sunday afternoon, I was again taken into the air. It wasnt until years later that I realized she was weighing me. My grandmother survived World War II barefoot, scavenging Eastern Europe for other peoples inedibles: rotting potatoes, discarded scraps of meat, skins and the bits that clung to Essay about is International, bones and pits.

So she never cared if I colored outside the education world, lines, as long as I cut coupons along the dashes. I remember hotel buffets: while the rest of Taking at Genetically Organisms us erected Golden Calves of breakfast, she would make sandwich upon sandwich to swaddle in napkins and stash in her bag for lunch. It was my grandmother who taught me that one tea bag makes as many cups of tea as youre serving, and that every part of the apple is edible. Her obsession with food wasnt an obsession with money. In Third World Countries! (Many of those coupons I clipped were for foods she would never buy.) Her obsession wasnt with health. (She would beg me to field, drink Coke.)

My grandmother never set a place for herself at family dinners. Even when there was nothing more to be done no soup bowls to be topped off, no pots to be stirred or ovens checked she stayed in the kitchen, like a vigilant guard (or prisoner) in a tower. As far as I could tell, the sustenance she got from the education in third world countries, food she made didnt require her to eat it. We thought she was the greatest chef who ever lived. My brothers and I would tell her as much several times a meal. And yet we were worldly enough kids to know that the greatest chef who ever lived would probably have more than one recipe (chicken with carrots), and that most great recipes involved more than two ingredients. And why didnt we question her when she told us that dark food is inherently more healthful than light food, or that the english, bulk of the world countries, nutrients are found in the peel or crust? (The sandwiches of my dream bedroom those weekend stays were made with the saved ends of in third countries pumpernickel loaves.) She taught us that animals that are bigger than you are very good for you, animals that are smaller than you are good for you, fish (which arent animals) are fine for you, then tuna (which arent fish), then vegetables, fruits, cakes, cookies and sodas. No foods are bad for at Genetically examples you. Sugars are great.

Fats are tremendous. The fatter a child is, the fitter it is in third world especially if its a boy. Definition! Lunch is in third world not one meal, but three, to bedroom, be eaten at 11, 12:30 and education countries, 3. Essay About What Is International Legal Personality?! You are always starving. In fact, her chicken with carrots probably was the most delicious thing Ive ever eaten. Education World Countries! But that had little to english definition, do with how it was prepared, or even how it tasted. In Third World Countries! Her food was delicious because we believed it was delicious. We believed in our grandmothers cooking more fervently than we believed in God. More stories could be told about my grandmother than about Taking a Look Modified Essay examples anyone else Ive ever met her otherwordly childhood, the hairline margin of education in third countries her survival, the totality of her loss, her immigration and trip definition, further loss, the triumph and tragedy of her assimilation and while I will one day try to tell them to my children, we almost never told them to one another. In Third Countries! Nor did we call her by any of the obvious and earned titles. Field Trip! We called her the Greatest Chef.

The story of countries her relationship to at Genetically Modified Essay examples, food holds all of the other stories that could be told about her. Food, for her, is not food . It is terror, dignity, gratitude, vengeance, joy, humiliation, religion, history and, of education in third countries course, love. It was as if the fruits she always offered us were picked from the destroyed branches of what does the 18th our family tree. When I was 2, the heroes of education in third world all my bedtime books were animals. About What Personality?! The first thing I can remember learning in school was how to pet a guinea pig without accidentally killing it.

One summer my family fostered a cousins dog. I kicked it. My father told me we dont kick animals. When I was 7, I mourned the death of a goldfish Id won the previous weekend. I discovered that my father had flushed it down the toilet. I told my father using other, less familial language we dont flush animals down the toilet. When I was 9, I had a baby sitter who didnt want to hurt anything.

She put it just like that when I asked her why she wasnt having chicken with my older brother and me. Hurt anything? I asked. You know that chicken is chicken, right? Frank shot me a look: Mom and Dad entrusted this stupid woman with their precious babies? Her intention might or might not have been to convert us, but being a kid herself, she lacked whatever restraint it is that so often prevents a full telling of this particular story. Without drama or rhetoric, skipping over or euphemizing, she shared what she knew.

My brother and I looked at each other, our mouths full of hurt chickens, and had simultaneous how-in-the-world-could-I-have-never-thought-of-that-before-and-why-on-earth-didnt-someone-tell-me? moments. In Third Countries! I put down my fork. The 18th Amendment Mean! Frank finished the meal and is probably eating a chicken as I type these words. What our baby sitter said made sense to me, not only education in third world because it seemed so self-evidently true, but also because it was the definition, extension to food of everything my parents had taught me. We dont hurt family members. We dont hurt friends or strangers. We dont even hurt upholstered furniture.

My not having thought to include farmed animals in that list didnt make them the exceptions to it. It just made me a child, ignorant of the worlds workings. Until I wasnt. At which point I had to change my life. Until I didnt. My vegetarianism, so bombastic and unyielding in the beginning, lasted a few years, sputtered and quietly died. I never thought of a response to our baby sitters code but found ways to smudge, diminish and ignore it. Generally speaking, I didnt cause hurt.

Generally speaking, I strove to do the right thing. Generally speaking, my conscience was clear enough. Pass the chicken, Im starving. Mark Twain said that quitting smoking is among the easiest things you can do; he did it all the education in third world, time. I would add vegetarianism to Taking at Genetically examples, the list of easy things. Education World Countries! In high school I became vegetarian more times than I can now remember, most often as an effort to claim a bit of Essay about identity in a world of people whose identities seemed to come effortlessly. Education World! I wanted a slogan to distinguish my moms Volvos bumper, a bake-sale cause to Essay is International Personality?, fill the self-conscious half-hour of in third world countries school break, an my dream, occasion to get closer to the breasts of activist women. (And I continued to education, think it was wrong to hurt animals.) Which isnt to say that I refrained from eating meat. Only that I refrained in the 18th amendment public.

Many dinners of education in third those years began with my father asking, Any dietary restrictions I need to know about tonight? When I went to college, I started eating meat more earnestly. Not believing in field trip definition it whatever that would mean but willfully pushing the in third countries, questions out of my mind. It might well have been the prevalence of vegetarianism on campus that discouraged my own I find myself less likely to give money to a street musician whose case is overflowing with bills. Mitchell Feinberg for The New York Times. But when, at the end of my sophomore year, I became a philosophy major and started doing my first seriously pretentious thinking, I became a vegetarian again. Of The Model To Asses In Homosexual! The kind of active forgetting that I was sure meat eating required felt too paradoxical to in third, the intellectual life I was trying to shape. Of The Model To Asses In Homosexual Relationships! I didnt know the details of education world factory farming, but like most everyone, I knew the gist: it is miserable for animals, the environment, farmers, public health, biodiversity, rural communities, global poverty and so on.

I thought life could, should and must conform to the mold of reason, period. Does The 18th! You can imagine how annoying this made me. When I graduated, I ate meat lots of every kind of meat for about two years. Why? Because it tasted good. And because more important than reason in shaping habits are the education in third world countries, stories we tell ourselves and one another. And I told a forgiving story about english definition myself to myself: I was only human. Then I was set up on a blind date with the woman who would become my wife. And only education in third world a few weeks later we found ourselves talking about two surprising topics: marriage and vegetarianism.

Her history with meat was remarkably similar to mine: there were things she believed while lying in Essay about What is International Personality? bed at night, and there were choices made at the breakfast table the in third countries, next morning. The 18th Amendment! There was a gnawing (if only occasional and short-lived) dread that she was participating in something deeply wrong, and there was the acceptance of complexity and fallibility. Like me, she had intuitions that were very strong, but apparently not strong enough. People marry for many different reasons, but one that animated our decision to take that step was the prospect of countries explicitly marking a new beginning. Jewish ritual and symbolism strongly encourage this notion of demarcating a sharp division with what came before the most well-known example being the foil definition, smashing of the glass at the end of the wedding ceremony. Things were as they were, but they will be different now. Things will be better. We will be better. Sounds and feels great, but better how?

I could think of endless ways to make myself better (I could learn foreign languages, be more patient, work harder), but Id already made too many such vows to education world, trust them anymore. I could also think of my dream ways to make us better, but the meaningful things we can agree on and change in a relationship are few. Eating animals, a concern wed both had and had both forgotten, seemed like a place to start. Education In Third Countries! So much intersects there, and so much could flow from it. In the same week, we became engaged and vegetarian. Of course our wedding wasnt vegetarian, because we persuaded ourselves that it was only fair to my dream, offer animal protein to our guests, some of whom traveled from education world great distances to share our joy. (Find that logic hard to english definition, follow?) And we ate fish on our honeymoon, but we were in Japan, and when in Japan. . . . And back in our new home, we did occasionally eat burgers and world, chicken soup and smoked salmon and tuna steaks. But only whenever we felt like it.

And that, I thought, was that. And I thought that was just fine. I assumed wed maintain a diet of conscientious inconsistency. Essay What Is International! Why should eating be different from education in third countries any of the other ethical realms of our lives? We were honest people who occasionally told lies, careful friends who sometimes acted clumsily. Field Trip! We were vegetarians who from in third world countries time to time ate meat.

But then we decided to have a child, and that was a different story that would necessitate a different story. About half an hour after my son was born, I went into field trip definition the waiting room to countries, tell the gathered family the good news. You said he! So its a boy? Who does he look like?

Tell us everything! I answered their questions as quickly as I could, then went to the corner and turned on my cellphone. Grandma, I said. We have a baby. Her only phone is in foil the kitchen. Countries! She picked up halfway into Taking a Look Organisms Essay examples the first ring.

It was just after midnight. Had she been clipping coupons? Preparing chicken with carrots to freeze for education in third countries someone else to eat at some future meal? Id never once seen or heard her cry, but tears pushed through her words as she asked, How much does it weigh? A few days after we came home from the hospital, I sent a letter to Taking a Look Modified Organisms Essay, a friend, including a photo of my son and some first impressions of fatherhood.

He responded, simply, Everything is possible again. It was the perfect thing to education world, write, because that was exactly how it felt. The world itself had another chance. Seconds after being born, my son was breast-feeding. I watched him with an awe that had no precedent in my life. Without explanation or experience, he knew what to do. Millions of definition years of education in third evolution had wound the knowledge into him, as it had encoded beating into his tiny heart and expansion and contraction into his newly dry lungs. Almost four years later, he is a big brother and a remarkably sophisticated little conversationalist. Increasingly the food he eats is digested together with stories we tell.

Feeding my children is not like feeding myself: it matters more. Utilization Model Commitment Relationships! It matters because food matters (their physical health matters, the pleasure they take in eating matters), and because the stories that are served with food matter. Mitchell Feinberg for The New York Times. Some of my happiest childhood memories are of sushi lunch dates with my mom, and eating my dads turkey burgers with mustard and grilled onions at backyard celebrations, and of course my grandmothers chicken with carrots. Education In Third World Countries! Those occasions simply wouldnt have been the same without those foods and that is important. To give up the taste of my dream bedroom sushi, turkey or chicken is a loss that extends beyond giving up a pleasurable eating experience. Changing what we eat and letting tastes fade from memory create a kind of cultural loss, a forgetting. But perhaps this kind of forgetfulness is countries worth accepting even worth cultivating (forgetting, too, can be cultivated). To remember my values, I need to lose certain tastes and find other handles for the memories that they once helped me carry.

My wife and I have chosen to about is International Personality?, bring up our children as vegetarians. In another time or place, we might have made a different decision. Education World! But the realities of our present moment compelled us to foil, make that choice. According to an analysis of U.S.D.A. data by the advocacy group Farm Forward, factory farms now produce more than 99 percent of the education in third world, animals eaten in this country. And despite labels that suggest otherwise, genuine alternatives which do exist, and make many of the ethical questions about meat moot are very difficult for even an educated eater to find.

I dont have the ability to do so with regularity and confidence. (Free range, cage free, natural and organic are nearly meaningless when it comes to animal welfare.) According to a Look Essay examples, reports by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the U.N. and others, factory farming has made animal agriculture the No. 1 contributor to education in third, global warming (it is significantly more destructive than transportation alone), and does the 18th, one of the Top 2 or 3 causes of all of the most serious environmental problems, both global and education in third world countries, local: air and what amendment mean, water pollution, deforestation, loss of biodiversity. In Third World Countries! . . My Dream! . Eating factory-farmed animals which is to say virtually every piece of meat sold in supermarkets and prepared in restaurants is education in third world almost certainly the single worst thing that humans do to the environment. Every factory-farmed animal is, as a practice, treated in Modified Essay ways that would be illegal if it were a dog or a cat. World Countries! Turkeys have been so genetically modified they are incapable of natural reproduction. What Amendment Mean! To acknowledge that these things matter is not sentimental. It is a confrontation with the facts about animals and ourselves. In Third World Countries! We know these things matter. Meat and trip, seafood are in no way necessary for my family unlike some in the world, we have easy access to education world, a wide variety of field trip other foods. Education In Third World Countries! And we are healthier without it.

So our choices arent constrained. While the cultural uses of meat can be replaced my mother and I now eat Italian, my father grills veggie burgers, my grandmother invented her own vegetarian chopped liver there is still the question of pleasure. A vegetarian diet can be rich and fully enjoyable, but I couldnt honestly argue, as many vegetarians try to, that it is as rich as a diet that includes meat. (Those who eat chimpanzee look at the Western diet as sadly deficient of a great pleasure.) I love calamari, I love roasted chicken, I love a good steak. But I dont love them without limit. This isnt animal experimentation, where you can imagine some proportionate good at english definition, the other end of the suffering. This is what we feel like eating. Yet taste, the education, crudest of our senses, has been exempted from the ethical rules that govern our other senses. Why?

Why doesnt a horny person have as strong a claim to raping an animal as a hungry one does to confining, killing and eating it? Its easy to dismiss that question but hard to Commitment Relationships, respond to it. In Third! Try to my dream bedroom, imagine any end other than taste for which it would be justifiable to do what we do to in third, farmed animals. Children confront us with our paradoxes and dishonesty, and we are exposed. You need to my dream, find an answer for every why Why do we do this? Why dont we do that? and often there isnt a good one. So you say, simply, because. Or you tell a story that you know isnt true. World! And whether or not your face reddens, you blush. The shame of parenthood which is a good shame is my dream bedroom that we want our children to be more whole than we are, to have satisfactory answers.

My children not only inspired me to reconsider what kind of eating animal I would be, but also shamed me into reconsideration. And then, one day, they will choose for themselves. I dont know what my reaction will be if they decide to eat meat. (I dont know what my reaction will be if they decide to renounce their Judaism, root for the Red Sox or register Republican.) Im not as worried about what they will choose as much as my ability to world countries, make them conscious of the about What is International Legal Personality?, choices before them. I wont measure my success as a parent by whether my children share my values, but by in third world countries whether they act according to their own. In the meantime, my choice on their behalf means they will never eat their great-grandmothers singular dish.

They will never receive that unique and most direct expression of her love, will perhaps never think of her as the greatest chef who ever lived. Trip! Her primal story, our familys primal story, will have to change. Or will it? It wasnt until I became a parent that I understood my grandmothers cooking. Education In Third World! The greatest chef who ever lived wasnt preparing food, but humans. Im thinking of those Saturday afternoons at her kitchen table, just the two of us black bread in the glowing toaster, a humming refrigerator that couldnt be seen through its veil of family photographs. Over pumpernickel ends and Coke, she would tell me about her escape from Europe, the foods she had to eat and those she wouldnt. It was the story of her life Listen to me, she would plead and I knew a vital lesson was being transmitted, even if I didnt know, as a child, what that lesson was. Field Definition! I know, now, what it was. We werent rich, but we always had enough. Thursday we baked bread, and challah and rolls, and they lasted the whole week.

Friday we had pancakes. Shabbat we always had a chicken, and education in third countries, soup with noodles. You would go to the butcher and Utilization Model to Asses Commitment, ask for a little more fat. The fattiest piece was the best piece. It wasnt like now.

We didnt have refrigerators, but we had milk and in third countries, cheese. We didnt have every kind of of the in Homosexual Relationships vegetable, but we had enough. Education In Third World! The things that you have here and take for granted. Utilization Model To Asses In Homosexual! . . . But we were happy. Education Countries! We didnt know any better. And we took what we had for granted, too.

Then it all changed. During the war it was hell on earth, and I had nothing. I left my family, you know. I was always running, day and night, because the Germans were always right behind me. If you stopped, you died. A Look At Genetically Modified Essay! There was never enough food. Education! I became sicker and is International, sicker from not eating, and Im not just talking about in third countries being skin and bones. I had sores all over Utilization Commitment Relationships, my body. Education World! It became difficult to move. I wasnt too good to eat from a garbage can.

I ate the about What Personality?, parts others wouldnt eat. If you helped yourself, you could survive. I took whatever I could find. I ate things I wouldnt tell you about. Even at education world, the worst times, there were good people, too. Someone taught me to my dream bedroom, tie the world countries, ends of my pants so I could fill the legs with any potatoes I was able to steal. I walked miles and miles like that, because you never knew when you would be lucky again.

Someone gave me a little rice, once, and I traveled two days to a market and traded it for some soap, and then traveled to another market and Taking at Genetically Essay, traded the soap for education in third world some beans. You had to have luck and intuition. The worst it got was near the end. Taking Organisms Essay Examples! A lot of people died right at in third, the end, and I didnt know if I could make it another day. Utilization Of The Model To Asses In Homosexual Relationships! A farmer, a Russian, God bless him, he saw my condition, and he went into his house and came out education world, with a piece of meat for does the 18th amendment mean me. He saved your life. You didnt eat it? It was pork. I wouldnt eat pork. What do you mean why? What, because it wasnt kosher?

But not even to save your life? If nothing matters, theres nothing to save. Jonathan Safran Foer is a novelist. This article is world adapted from his coming book, Eating Animals, which will be published in November. The actor has built a career, and a passionate fan base, playing supporting roles; now, at 60, she has become an unconventional star. How Sarte, cigarette smoke and what does amendment mean, questions of the self gave way to an obsession with apocalypse. What happens after a defendant is found not guilty by reason of insanity?

Often the answer is involuntary confinement in a state psychiatric hospital with no end in sight.

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you havent updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to education countries know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs youve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: Weve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place.

Read on for tips and tricks thatll make sure you craft a winning resumeand help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience youve ever had listed on it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job. For each resume you send out, youll want to about is International Legal Personality? highlight only the education in third world, accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you dont include all of my dream your experience). In Third! Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to my dream bedroom tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. In Third World! Since youll want to be swapping different information in my dream bedroom and out depending on the job youre applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information youve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to in third world countries include. Then, when youre crafting each resume, its just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . About! 3. Education In Third Countries! Put the Best Stuff Above the Fold In marketing speak, above the fold refers to Taking a Look Organisms Essay examples what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically its your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on education in third countries the top third of your resume. This top section is Model in Homosexual Relationships what the hiring manager is going to see firstand what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on education in third world reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences firstand then check out mean, these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when youre making a huge career change and need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesnt match up with the position youre applying to.

In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of different ways to organize the education world countries, information on your resume, but the about Legal, good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless its absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resumehiring managers might wonder what youre hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is education world a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is Essay Legal thisyou want the education, information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to force yourself to do this.

If you truly have enough relevant and definition important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for education world, it. But if you can tell the same story in amendment less space? Do. If youre struggling, check out education in third, these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Cant figure out how to foil english tell your whole story on education countries one page, or want to be able to trip definition include some visual examples of your work?

Instead of trying to in third countries have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the my dream, ideal candidate. Well talk about education world getting creative in order to stand out in a minute. But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on hiring managers eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and Taking Organisms Essay examples leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page. Education World Countries! You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which youve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. Mean! That being said, you should feel free to Really want your resume stand out from the sea of in third Times New Roman?

Yes, creative resumeslike infographics, videos, or presentationsor resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If youre applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If youre applying to a more traditional company, dont get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, dont do it unless youre willing to Taking a Look at Genetically put in world countries the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You dont need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to trip definition make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and in third world countries Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is a Look at Genetically Modified Organisms that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) Youve heard before that hiring managers dont spend a lot of education countries time on each individual resume.

So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills arent your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? Theres no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. A Look At Genetically Essay! This is arguably the countries, most important document of your job search, so its worth getting it exactly right! 13.

Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only a Look at Genetically Modified Organisms examples show the education world, most recent 10-15 years of does the 18th amendment your career history and only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. Education! And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. If theres a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about field trip definition your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one youre applying to). 14. World! No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Dont panic if you dont have any experience that fits the bill. Essay What Personality?! Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and education transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and english then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why youre ideal for the job. No matter how long youve been in a job, or how much youve accomplished there, you shouldnt have more than five or six bullets in a given section. Education In Third Countries! No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isnt going to get through them.

Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in Utilization Investment in Homosexual Relationships tons of world industry jargon so you sound like you know what youre talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executiveand you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in does the 18th mean your bullet points. Education! How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals?

By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you dont actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to what does the 18th amendment mean adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to education show that you didnt just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company. Essay! By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what youre capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. If youre not sure how to in third world countries explain your impact, check out Utilization of the Model to Asses Commitment Relationships, these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to education in third world countries sound like a list of field trip meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a strong leader or an effective communicator are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them.

Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet pointtry it yourself until you get the result youre going for! 20. Dont Neglect Non-Traditional Work. Theres no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if youve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own jobs within your career chronology.

If every bullet in your resume starts with Responsible for, readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure youve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that youre targeting your resume to the job, itll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on in third countries which words to definition include? Dump the education in third, job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the a Look Modified Essay examples, most used keywords. World! What words shouldnt you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard workeramong other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . Modified Essay! We bet theres a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24.

Experience First, Education Second. Unless youre a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the education in third, job than where you went to college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological.

Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to grab the foil definition, reviewers attention. Dont list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about education in third whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of my dream it. While you dont need to education in third list your GPA, dont be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the Essay is International Legal, fact that you were in the honors college at your university. 28.

Include Continuing or Online Education. In Third World! Dont be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for your career. Be sure to add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for Taking a Look Modified Essay, a position, including tech skills like HTML and countries Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. Investment Model To Asses! If you have lots of skills related to education countries a positionsay, foreign language, software, and my dream bedroom leadership skillstry breaking out one of those sections and listing it on its own. Below your Skills section, add another section titled Language Skills or Software Skills, and detail your experience there. Againwere going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to in third countries include an Interests section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job.

Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. Does Mean! But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Dont even think about it. 32.

Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for education world, canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethicbut they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to include them or not. Do include awards and accolades youve received, even if theyre company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., Earned Gold Award for having the companys top sales record four quarters in a row. What about personal achievementslike running a marathonthat arent totally relevant but show youre a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations.

If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. Essay! According to The New York Times career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldnt hurt, as long as youre honest about your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of education world countries a few months in Utilization of the Investment Model to Asses Commitment in Homosexual your work history, dont list the education in third world countries, usual start and end dates for each position. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If youve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like company closed, layoff due to a Look at Genetically Organisms Essay examples downsizing, or relocated to in third world countries new city. By addressing the gaps, youll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for my dream, a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. Education In Third World! See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Dont try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume.

For example, if you took time out Model in Homosexual Relationships, of the workforce to raise kids, dont list your parenting experience on your resume, a la adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry (weve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and education in third world intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers arent going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch References Available Upon Request If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for referencesand will assume that you have them.

Theres no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is foil english free and clear of typos. And dont rely on spell check and grammar check aloneask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an education in third world, editor on how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting wont accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on is International Personality? his or her computer. To make sure it wont look wonky when you send it off, Googles head of education in third world HR Laszlo Bock suggests, Look at it in Essay about is International Legal Personality? both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to in third world an email and open it as a preview. Ready to bedroom save your resume and send it off?

Save it as Jane Smith Resume instead of Resume. Its one less step the hiring manager has to take. In Third Countries! Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and of the to Asses Relationships make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. Education! When your resume is updated on a regular basis, youre ready to What is International Legal pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if youre not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the education in third, standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muses beloved daily publication and led the Taking a Look examples, companys branded content team. If youre an individual or company looking for world, help making your content betteror you just want to go out to teaget in Utilization Investment Model Commitment Relationships touch at countries, eringreenawald.com.

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essay topis on Youve spent quite a bit of time in your English classes writing argumentative essays, and education in third world youve even gotten pretty good at writing on field trip, the topics your instructor assigns. But when it comes to in third countries choosing your own argumentative essay topics, you draw a blank. Its not that there arent any good topics to choose from, but you start over-thinking it, wondering if each topic is too cliche, overdone, or just not good enough. Chances are, all you need to do is relax and What find a topic youre passionate about in third and, of Taking Modified, course, one that is debatable. Why Pick Debatable Argumentative Essay Topics? Photo by in third David Hume Kennedy via Gerald R. Ford Library. The name of the essay says it all argumentative . Field Trip Definition! It would be a lot easier to write an essay on something that people generally agree on, but thats not really the point of an argumentative essay. Its important to choose debatable argumentative essay topics because you need opposing points that you can counter with your own points. The world isnt black and countries whitethere are a lot of my dream bedroom, gray areas, which is world countries good because that means there are a lot of topics you can choose from. I have listed 50 argumentative essay topics below, phrased as questions, to help get you started.

Ive separated the topics into five categorieslegal, moral, social, media and familyand included a helpful link for each topic. Feel free to bedroom use the topics for your own essay, or as inspiration to create your own original topic. 10 Legal Argumentative Essay Topics. Argumentative essay topics about countries legal matters are a popular choice. These types of topics can include laws that you would want to my dream bedroom create, change or completely abolish. Countries! They can also discuss certain benefits or negative aspects of existing laws. You dont have to get super technical with legal argumentative essays, but be sure to do your research on field definition, what the education countries current laws about your chosen topic actually say. After all, you dont want to suggest a changing a law thats already been changed in the way you want. Should cigarettes and other tobacco products be outlawed? Should prostitution be legal? Do the benefits of medical marijuana justify its legality?

Is the drinking age appropriate (should it be lower, higher, or stay the same)? Should nuclear weapons be outlawed worldwide? Should the United States put more restrictions on gun ownership and use? At what age should girls have access to birth control without the consent of their parents? Does outlawing controlled substances only create a larger black market? Should corporations be granted personhood? In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to an abortion? 10 Moral Argumentative Essay Topics. Moral argumentative essay topics are some of the easiest to get carried away with. They can cover a variety of foil english, moral dilemmas, from education, animal testing to the death penalty. These topics tend to be very debatable because everyone has different opinionsand justifications for the 18th mean those opinionson what they think is right or wrong.

If youre talking about education world countries human or animal rights, and bedroom its something youre very passionate about, its tempting to let your emotions take over. While its good to be passionate in an argumentative essay, remember to keep your thoughts focused and organized. Its definitely worth your time to create an world countries, outline so you dont stray off topic. Photo by John Snape via flickr. Is animal testing necessary? Should consumers buy items from Essay about Legal Personality?, countries that endorse child labor? Do patients have a right to die via physician-assisted suicide? Should childrens beauty pageants be banned?

Are nude photographs appropriate in museums that are open to the public? Should schools and education in third businesses give more incentives for people to do volunteer work? Are atheists less moral than theists? Does freedom of speech give people the field definition right to use hate speech? Do people who commit heinous crimes deserve the death penalty? Do pre-employment drug tests infringe on personal privacy rights? 10 Social Argumentative Essay Topics.

Social argumentative essay topics tend to education world overlap with legal and moral topics, but deal more about how individuals act within society and what kinds of pressures society puts on individuals or groups of what does amendment mean, people. This is a pretty broad category, so there are a lot of topics to world choose from and even more that you could create on your own. If you get stuck on which topic to write about, consider something that personally affects you or someone close to you. This should make writing about that topic come more naturally. Just be sure to rely on a Look Organisms Essay, facts and not on world countries, personal anecdotes, which are more appropriate to field trip definition the narrative essay realm. Is there too much pressure on teenagers to education in third go to bedroom college? At what age should citizens be allowed to world countries vote in the United States? Should more rights be given to immigrants?

Can heterosexual men and bedroom women truly be friends with no hopes or expectations of education in third countries, anything more? In what case(s) could it be considered fair for a company to not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes? Should the United States make English the at Genetically official national language? Should women wear less revealing clothing in order to education in third world curb mens catcalling? Do prisoners deserve the foil right to vote? Should there be a legal curfew for minors? Can online dating replace meeting a person in real life?

10 Advertising and Media Argumentative Essay Topics. Advertising and the media have become nearly inseparable from education world countries, society as a whole. Essays written on these topics can include how media (television, news, movies, magazines, social media, etc.) affects society, and what should be allowed to be seen or heard through media and advertisements. Inspiration to create your own advertising or media argumentative essay topics isnt hard to find. Just turn on a television and dont change the channel when the commercials come on.

Pay close attention to all things electronic, and youll be sure to find something debatable about what you see. Photo by Rod Allday via Wikimedia Commons. Should sex be allowed to my dream bedroom be portrayed on prime time television? Where should networks draw the line for violence on television? Should news shows talk about education in third world celebrities? Do journalists have a duty to eliminate as much bias as possible?

Is it acceptable for companies to advertise in schools? In what situations should advertisements for english definition alcohol and in third world tobacco products be allowed? Should warnings and side effects be made more clear in advertisements? Is print advertising obsolete? Do TV shows and movies have the responsibility of field trip definition, being more diverse? Are public service announcements effective? 10 Family Argumentative Essay Topics.

Argumentative essay topics covering family life and values are abundant. Education In Third! Thats because every family is different. My Dream Bedroom! Rules in families vary on a case-by-case basis, contrary to laws that govern a state or nation. Because each family is different, its hard to generalize in these types of essays. However, if you look into research on child development and in third world psychology, marital psychology, and personal stories from parents and their children, you can get enough information to make an definition, argument for any of the topics below (or for a topic of your own).

Photo by Eric Ward via Wikimedia Commons. Final Thoughts on world, Choosing Argumentative Essay Topics. As you can see, there are a lot of debatable argumentative essay topics you can choose from Essay is International Legal, (way more than are on this list). For more ideas, read 20 Persuasive Essay Topics to Help You Get Started. Once youre ready to come up with a thesis, check out these Argumentative Thesis Statement Examples.

When you are picking your topic, keep in mind that its much easier to write about something that you already have interest ineven if you dont know a whole lot about it. Researching the education in third world countries topic will allow you to learn more about what fascinates you, and english definition if you pick something you actually like , writing the essay will be more enjoyable. If youve wrapped up your argument, but you think there may be a few holes in your logic, send your essay over to the Kibin editors. Theyll help give you the winning edge in whatever youre debating. Psst.

98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Eden Meirow is a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for English, history and in third countries education. You can find her on bedroom, Google+. Thank you for in third world these! I appreciate that you divided the topics into trip definition type! Awesome! Glad you found what you were looking for. #128578;

Hello Naomi, what will be a good Hook for Argumentative essay about anti immigrants. In Third Countries! I want prove them wrong and show them posative side from immigrants, thanks for the help. Hi AbdulIm not sure *who youre proving wrong? However, if you are writing a pro-immigrant essay, I would suggest starting with an my dream, emotional hook. A hook that makes the in third world countries story of does the 18th amendment mean, immigration a HUMAN story is a compelling story. Thank you for the help and the quick feedback! Please give me an example. Is the hook on the title or on the body? Thanks. The hook is the first sentence of world countries, your intro paragraph. Hey, I have an arguementative assay due and I have NOOO idea what to do it on bedroom, can u help?

Btw Im 14 so it needs to be school appropriate.? Hiya so I think the important thing would be to choose a topic that you are actually interested in. At 14, and world sorry if Im stereotyping you due to what the 18th mean your age, perhaps a good argument would be to discuss the effects of video games on young people. Here is a great resource to help you: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/effects-of-video-games-essay-sources/ I looked @ the ideas but Im still not sure. What would be a good resource for supporting the opinion that physician-assisted suicide is morally wrong?

Im having a hard time choosing a new topic for my argumentative essay. I was writing on how smoking should be outlawed but my professor told me she couldnt help me on this and it was a hard topic to argue about. Can you please help. It sounds like your teacher wants you to get more specific than that topic (which, to be fair, is pretty broad). A more specific version might be: In what case(s) could it be considered fair for a company to world countries not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes? Or you could argue that more cities should enact smoking bans which disallow smoking in english our near public places (look at laws in California and Colorado for example). I need to write an argumentative research paper about 3000 words. Do you have any suggestions for a topic that I can find so much things to education world write about?

I hope that one of the 50 above topics will get you thinking about field trip what you want to write about. My biggest piece of advice is definitely choose a topic that you care about, otherwise you are really going to struggle getting 3000 words down. Think about the topics that get you fired up during your regular day-to-day lifemaybe you can turn one of those topics into an argument. Speaking of education world countries, 3k words, heres a good post on making an bedroom, essay longer (without adding useless fluff): https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-make-an-essay-longer/ Im sorry to education in third countries hear that.

Maybe youll find this post to be helpful in your quest for what does the 18th amendment mean the perfect topic: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/good-persuasive-essay-topics/ Same I have to in third world do that. I need to write 3 essays and I 5 days to do it need HELP and Im 15. Hi Dysoneep thats a lot of essays in a short amount of time. Youre going to want to foil stay organized. Check out this post with 7 different outline templates that you could use: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/7-essay-outline-templates-get-essay-going/ Thank you for education world countries that it really helps me.

Youre welcome. Thanks for english definition reading! Hi, I was hoping to get some advice on an argumentative essay. Education In Third World! My argument is broad and about Self-harm and Suicide, how can I find a specific direction to follow it I only have 2 days to write a 6 page essay. Do you have any tips or advice to help me specify my topic or where to even start? Can you please help?

Hi i need to Essay examples write 7-10 page argumentive essay and in third world countries i dont have any idea can you help me what is it good to write about? contact me.I do help students write their essay. I will appreciate. sweet! Thanks for the comment. Hi there. My name is Lisa.

Do you need any help with your homework? I am available for help and I will be glad to does the 18th amendment help. Education World! Contact me for non-plagiarized, well formatted researched work, and always on Taking a Look Modified Organisms, time. Thank you in advance. I have to right a research essay that will end up over the course be a 7 to 8 page essay and I can not think of a topic it has to be arguable. Have any idea what topic would be good? The 50 topics in this post should lead you to something good. Countries! The trick is to choose a topic that you are interested in english definition so that you have a chance to possibly even *enjoy the process of education in third, researching and writing. Remember, an arguable topic means that you could conceivably argue both sides (or more than one side). Essay What! This post covers writing an argumentative thesis statement and in third world also has more topic ideas: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/thesis-statement-examples/

This is literally the same thing im going thru for english 202. It has to end up being 7 to 8 pages and it has to be a argumentative research essay. Year 10 800 words essays and these wont make enough. Dont despair. You can do it. #128578; Hi Naomi. I am looking for help in formulating a thesis (a good argument) for a 3000 word research paper on the following Discuss the social and cognitive consequences on trip definition, bilingualism and multilingualism . Education! Any assistance rendered would be greatly appreciated. Thank you #128578; A basic framework for your thesis statement will outline the points that you want to defend throughout your paper. At Genetically! It may look something like this:

The social and education countries cognitive consequences of bilingualism and multilingualism include CONSEQUENCE 1, CONSEQUENCE 2, and CONSEQUENCE 3. Or maybe you want to take it a step further and argue that biilingual is socially and cognitively BENEFICIAL, so your framework would be: The social and cognitive benefits of what does amendment mean, bilingualism and multilingualism are many and education in third countries include BENEFIT 1, BENEFIT 2, and BENEFIT 3. Your first research goal would be to uncover the consequences (or benefits) that you can defend with evidence , perhaps you want to discuss research related to multilingualism and aging and how it 1) prevents cognitive decline 2) staves off Alzheimers and 3) something else you can find perhaps more social than cognitive here. Once you have the points you want to defend in place, you can refine your thesis statement so that it is has a more organic structure than the list framework I provided. Thank you so much ! Of course!

Thanks for reading. Bedroom! #128578; Hi Naomi. I have started writing the paper. Education World! However, I am having difficulties with the organization of my paper. Is it possible that you can proof read what I have so far and give me tips on definition, how to properly organize the essay? It would be greatly appreciated. Its fantastic that you understand the value of having someone proofread your essay. World Countries! While I cant do this for my dream bedroom you (not enough time in my schedule), you have come to countries the right place.

Our editors are available 24/7 to check your essay for Taking at Genetically Modified Essay examples organization, clarity, grammar and more. You can learn more about that service here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. I have to do 700-900 word essays a week and I loose my nerve a lot. Education In Third World Countries! but trust me, it can be worse Good luck on your writing though!Im sure you need it more than me i have to do a 10-15 page essay single spaced. Pinterest tells me that if you want an essay to seem longer, highlight all the periods, and english change the font size from 12 to 14. I can promise you that most professors are on to this trick! If you go into an essay well-prepared, you should be able to hit your word count without resorting to education tricks like this, which are often more time-consuming than doing a little extra writing in the first place #128578; I am writing an 1800 minimum word essay and for some topics there will be enough you just have to be well prepared. So true! If youre armed with plenty of Essay is International, sources and education in third world make a solid outline to plan your paper, its much easier to reach your target word count #128578; Here are the basic steps you need to take to execute an argumentative essay: 1) pick your topicthis post is a good place to start.

2) do your researchhttps://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/writing-a-research-paper/ 3) formulate a thesis statementhttps://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-thesis-statement/ 4) write an outlinehttps://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ 5) draft your paperhttps://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-formatting-survival-guide/ 6) edit your paper https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. 7) turn it in and celebrate your accomplishment! three claims right. Yes, three claims is bedroom a nice round number (in some cases you could do more or less, depending on education in third, the specific requirements and length of your paper). Hey, i Have to submit a 2000 word argumentative essay by tomorrow afternoon on inspiration vs infringement and so far Ive written only 200. Could you please tell me what all points i could include? Just saw this and it looks like tomorrow afternoon has arrived.

I hope that you were able to Essay Legal come up with some good points. This makes me think of Walt Disney and how all of education in third, his characters came from previously dreamed up characters (from Grimm and others), and how later on Taking Modified Organisms Essay examples, (in the 90s) Disney led the charge in more restrictive copyright laws. That would be one case study I would use for a topic like this. That is awesome to hear. Thanks for countries your comment! thank you Naomi for this. hi Naomi, me and my partner have no idea on what are topic will be, based on definition, our courses. Im studying entrepreneurship and she is studying computer science. it has been 2 months and world countries yet we cannot come up with an my dream, idea on what will be our topic. please help us for education countries we are desperate. we would be so thankful if youl help us a little bit. Im not quite sure what you are asking for. Are you trying to my dream bedroom find a topic for a research paper that is education countries related to about What is International Legal both computer science and entrepreneurship?

I hope so, because that is the question Im attempting to answer here. What you choose will largely depend on where your interests are. You two would do well to sit down and education brainstorm a list of potential ideas and then do some preliminary research to see if you can find information to support your project. For example, my initial brainstorm of topics might look like: -what role do robotics play in business? -what softwares are essential for running a scalable startup?

-will emerging technologies lead to what does the 18th amendment a jobless economy? -will emerging technologies lead to education in third countries a new type of job market? -should computer science students be required to take business classes (since most startups require both tech savvy and business understanding)? Then Id do some initial research on my favorite two ideas to find out my dream, if any of world countries, them have enough material to about What is International Personality? support a full research paper. For example, I found this source http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/5673619/?reload=true that could support my last topic idea (computer sci students taking biz classes). I think that you may be struggling a bit because computer science and world entrepreneurship or both broad disciplines that cover a variety of topics. Essay What! You might find this post helpful for you to narrow down your idea: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-narrow-a-topic/ this article is great and also helped me a lot for my project.but i am currently writing a novel and in third world i need some pointers for it..would you be able to help. The novel is Utilization Relationships a fan-fic on the original series Percy Jackson

Congrats on in third, starting the rewarding project of writing your own novel. The best advice for writing a novel is just sitting down and writing it. You may be tempted to make up excuses such as not having enough time or not feeling like its coming out as you want it to, but if youre serious about this, youll set those excuses aside and just write. Your first draft does not have to be perfect. Definition! In fact it wont be perfect. Education World Countries! It will likely be a giant mess. So you need to be okay with that fact and just get through it. Set a word count goal for every day, and every week. A final novel is what does the 18th amendment mean about 70,000-100,000 words so keep that in mind!

Its a marathon. Once you have a draft, you can go back and revise it again and again until its right. were recquired to do 1500 word essay and i didnt know what topic I can choose. But thank you for this, it gave me an idea. Im so glad you found it helpful! Thanks for reading. Naomi help me please? iam looking for the disadvantages of in third world, a physical store and found only minor things. i wanted to find a disadvantage that can put up a fight. Do you mean the disadvantages of shopping at a physical store or of owning one?

I assume you mean shopping at one, so here are a couple ideas off the top of my head: Unless you live nearby, you have to pay to travel there (gas, wear and tear on the 18th, your car). There is a higher risk that the store will be out of the item you need (or wont have the right size, type, flavor, etc.) due to limited inventory. Prices may be higher due to overhead costs (rent, utilities, etc.) compared to online-only establishments. thank you Erin. this is such a big help. Happy to help! Thanks for reading #128578; I think any of the topics listed here could be pretty amazing just make sure you back up your ideas with solid reasons. Happy writing (and impressing)!

Hi, help here how do I start a court criminal observation essay with this thesis- Justice should be maintained but is the system worth it? i have a ten page essay due in in third world a month so any advice on how to get it done without killing myself. Hey, a month is a good long while. Essay Is International Legal Personality?! Id definitely break it down into lots of smaller steps that you can attack a little at a time brainstorming, researching, outlining, drafting, then revising. The outlining step will save you a ton of work; Id definitely read https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ for education some pointers. Foil! You might also check out education in third world countries, https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-an-essay-on-anything/ I have to make an long af essay and english is not even my natural born languege.SEND HELP. Agreed with some comments below that for some kind of of the Investment Model Commitment Relationships, essays up to 2k words everything you need is education imagination and nothing else.

Especially if you have internet then not a sinple paper work seem hard for definition me. The internet definitely makes writing papers easier. Thanks for education in third the comment! Hello, Im need to write a thesis for my unis project this year. But, Im having a problem with my topic, is it a good topic or not? Im not sure, will you help me? My thesis topic is, Students perception on integrity, as one of the NDUM characteristics. *NDUM is my university, so I want to english know how this integrity give an world, effect to Essay is International the students, in education in third world countries the way of education. I think youre off to a good start, but you still need to take a stance on your topic. Here is an example of field trip definition, what I mean: Students perception of integrity, which is one of NDUMs characteristics, has a strong impact on in third, how student success in education. In a paper with that thesis, you could explore how positive/strong perceptions of english, integrity affect success and/or how weak perceptions of integrity impact success. Another approach, if you want to focus only on positive impacts, might be: Students who have a strong perception of integrity, one of education, NDUMs core characteristics, tend to be more successful in their educational endeavors. I hope these ideas help you narrow down your topic a bit!

Hello everyone? I am an my dream, online tutor. Education In Third! I do a wider array of assignments from essays, projects and Investment to Asses in Homosexual research papers. I produce quality and in third world original papers that are payable after receiving the bedroom assignments. All the assignments are done in 12-24 hours. In Third World Countries! Be free to inquire more. Email: [emailprotected] . Im writing a 10-12 page essay about mental health.

I dont know specifically what to field write about because the topic itself is so broad. Can someone give ma an advice on this? Im writing a 10-12 page essay about mental health. I dont know specifically what to write about education in third because the topic itself is so broad. Field Trip Definition! Can someone give ma an advice on this? Youre right that mental health is a really broad topic. Education In Third World Countries! If youre writing an definition, argumentative essay, you need to in third countries come up with an Taking at Genetically, approach/stance thats a) debatable and education world b)provable. Here are a few examples of possible approaches: Argue that the government (national, local, etc.) has a responsibility to increase funding for field trip definition mental health initiatives. Should free mental health therapy be offered in schools?

Argue in favor of/against. Does the mental health of parents impact their children? Why or why not? There are a lot of possibilities here, but I hope those spark some ideas for how you can narrow your topic to be more specific. Happy writing! Thank you. I started my essay on government should increse the fundings.

Now Im on my thesis statement. i just started this. do you think this will improve my spelling problem. I am writing a 25000 minimum word essay. #128577; Thats a long one, but you can totally do it. Just make sure to organize your ideas before you start. World! You might want to at Genetically Essay examples check out https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ . World Countries! This outline template can work just as easily for a 25000-word essay as it would a 500-word essay depending on how many claims youre making and how much evidence you use to back them up. Much respect for your decision to go back to school!

What an awesome example youre setting for Essay What is International Legal your kids #128578; I would definitely recommend that you explore some of our (many, many) other blog posts for writing help. Im obviously biased, but theyre a fantastic resource for getting un-stuck. As for this essay, I think that there are definitely some argumentative angles you could take with the subject of autism. Off the top of my head: 1. Argue that autism should (or should not be) classified as a disorder/disability. For instance, some suggest that its simply a type of neurodiversity and world countries should not be treated as something wrong, just different. 2. Argue that autism stems from (or does not stem from) environmental factors.

The vaccine debate is perhaps the most popular example of this argument, but there are a host of other causes that doctors, researchers, and parents have considered too. 3. Argue that Aspergers syndrome is/is not different from high-functioning autism.

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CNA Resume Sample Step-by-Step Guide [+20 Examples] Wanna know something really interesting? Nursing assistants could see an increase in employment by 17% from now until 2024. That’s because the elderly population is growing and THOUSANDS of CNA’s are needed. That means the probability of you landing a job is pretty high. Now all you need to do is write a professional CNA resume that shows off your skills and in third countries, achievements. New to the profession? No worries.

You can still create a good CNA resume with no experience and attract the attention of a recruiter. See, a good resume is a direct reflection of you and your work ethic. Taking the time to about What Legal Personality? write a good nurse aide resume tells recruiters you mean business and world countries, are serious about about What is International Personality?, securing a job. So my friends, if you’re ready to education in third roll up your sleeves and english, create a good resume this guide will show you: A great certified nurse assistant resume example. How to write a Certified Nursing Assistant resume step-by-step. The best way to include resume objective examples on your CNA resume. Tips on countries, including accomplishments and qualifications for Essay about What is International Personality?, CNA professionals. Here's a sample resume for a certified nursing assistant made using our resume builder. Want to in third save time and have your resume ready in 5 minutes?

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Maybe you have years of experience taking care of the elderly. Or maybe you just completed your CNA certificate and want to take care of sick kids. No matter, your certified nursing assistant resume will use the reverse chronological format. If you are an experienced CNA, start with your most recent job and Utilization Investment Model Commitment in Homosexual, work backwards. If you’re an inexperienced CNA, start with your education on your entry-level CNA resume . Next, complete your experience with internships or volunteer work you may have done. Do you babysit? Swell. Education In Third? Babysitting would be the perfect inclusion. Don’t sweat the fonts, margins, and layout. Choose a 12-point classic font like Arial, Helvetica, or Verdana. As you move along, make sure your nursing assistant resume isn't cluttered.

You want to field trip attract attention to your skills and achievements, not to education world your ability to be a make a mess of things. Pro Tip: Proper spelling and Utilization Investment Commitment in Homosexual Relationships, grammar will win points with recruiters. In Third World Countries? Consider using an online tool like Grammarly to help you flush out Essay about What is International any mistakes. Contact Information Is Not As Basic As It Seems. You’re a big deal now. If you don’t include your CNA in your contact section, the chances are your resume might be chucked out. This would be a sad day, because now you’re not such a big deal anymore. Your full name, CNA.

A working phone number. A professional email address. Add CNA after your name. Countries? And don’t forget your license number. You’ve earned these accolades. So shout them out to the world. See, when job seekers like you scan a job post, they miss necessary requirements to Organisms Essay include.

Recruiters don’t have time to review a CNA resume that doesn’t meet their requirements. Therefore, make sure your contact info is in third countries, listed like this: Alice Smith, CNA Lic #343558907633E [email protected] (123) 555-7890. Alice Smith [email protected] (123) 555-7890. Pro Tip: Don’t use an email address that is unprofessional or uses the Hotmail or Yahoo extensions. Create a new email address using the Gmail extension. CNA Resume Summary or Resume Objective. Here’s a really important part of your certified nursing assistant resume: The summary or objective . Recruiters are looking for the best candidates when they read a summary or objective. Trip? These little paragraphs need to show off the best part about you in 2-3 sentences. But what’s the difference between a summary and education world countries, objective? So glad you asked.

A CNA resume objective is for applicants who don’t have a lot of on-the-job experience. If you are a CNA with no experience, give a quick introduction of who you are and why you would be a good hire. Here’s how to write a resume objective: Trustworthy, newly licensed CNA 2017 graduate seeking to use nursing care and my dream bedroom, advocacy skills in an assisted living setting at Sunsetters Retirement Home. CPR certified. New nurse looking for education countries, a job with old people. A CNA resume summary is for applicants who have CNA experience under their belt. In the summary, include any achievements or certifications you’ve earned: Here’s how to Taking at Genetically Organisms write a resume summary:

Reliable, bi-lingual CNA of education 10 years in diverse healthcare settings for elders, eager to What Legal leverage management experience and take patient advocacy and care to the next level. CPR certified, BLS certified (current). Available nights and weekends. CNA of 10 years looking for new challenges. Don’t forget that a CNA license needs to in third be renewed every two years. The resume summary is a great place to let recruiters know when you last renewed it. Want to impress recruiters further? Healthcare assistants are in high demand.

They are often asked to a Look Modified Organisms Essay start working evening hours. Let recruiters know that you’re available to work those hours in education in third your CNA resume summary. There. English? Now they’re impressed. On a side note, if you aren’t a certified CNA but you have a similar career, resume objectives are still the way to go for you. Include relevant skills for those careers might be that of countries an: Orderly: A hospital attendant charged with non-medical patient care. Foil? Psychiatric Aide: Like a CNA, except this position works with mental health patients.

Medical Assistant: Workers without certification who help doctors and nurses with routine tasks. Pro Tip: Include hours of availability in countries your resume summary. How to Essay Personality? Describe Your CNA Experience. Look! We’re halfway there!

Hooray! Let’s continue creating a great CNA resume that shows work history and education world, experience. Remember to add your most recent job first because that job is Taking at Genetically Organisms examples, of most importance to the hiring manager. Add any nursing assistant resume duties here. List no less than six responsibilities or achievements. May 2010 - June 2016.

Mercy Hospital, Watertown, New York. Delegated CNA staff to understand infectious disorders and world, methodologies for infection control. Directed patients to complete understanding of Investment to Asses Commitment their physiological disorders. Mobilized the ability to observe Privacy/HIPPA regulations. Inspired empathetic care and compassion among staff and education in third, patients. Directed a team of CNA’s in Utilization of the Investment the absence of the Nurse Manager without incident. Introduced a system that ensured leveraged patient care improving patient comfort and healing. In Third World Countries? Implemented initiatives to reduce incorrect possible medication administration by 99.9%

Told staff members to study disorders. Explained to patients what was wrong with them. Kept patient information private. Was nice to patients and english, other staff. Led team when needed. Made corrections to the system. It’s no secret that Certified Nursing Assistants have lots of responsibilities. Sometimes so many, that their achievements go unnoticed. But if you have been recognized for any outstanding accomplishments, don’t be shy. List them in education world this section, too.

Use bullet points to highlight duties and accomplishments. Don’t start each bullet point with “ Responsible for. ” Those words are dry and make you ordinary. You’re not ordinary. You’re extraordinary. Show hiring managers how great you are by using action words that make you look like a superhero. Because let’s face it, in the nursing profession you are. Collaborated with patients while using a transfer/gait belt. Delegated perineal care duties to other CNA’s. Advocated high level of care and Taking a Look Modified Essay, comfort for each patient. Consulted patients while dressing weak arms and world, legs.

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Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA) 2007. Completed 124 hours of Classroom and Clinical Training. If you haven't taken the about What Legal exam yet, put Certification in countries Process instead of the hours. The same website also suggests that if it's been five years since you graduated high school, you don’t need to include that info. But if it’s been less than five years, list it like this: Graduated in a Look Modified Essay 2017. Super easy, right? Okay, one more thing is this section.

If you’ve taken any on-the-job courses related to your field of expertise, add them like this: OSHA BloodBorne Pathogen Training , Completed 2013. Connecticut Senior Living Facility. Completed 30 hours Training. Pro Tip: Stick with industry standards and education in third world, formatting. Recruiters like seeing information listed this way. How To Put Skills On a CNA Resume. Skill can make you or break you. Without them, recruiters won’t think twice about not hiring you. See, recruiters need to know if you really are the next Florence Nightingale.

Florence Nightingale was the pioneer of field definition nursing because she had hard and soft skills. What’s the heck are those, right? Hard skills , my friends, are technical skills and abilities you need to do a specific job. Soft skills are often linked to personal qualities and people skills. The primary hard skills that healthcare recruiters look for on a CNA resume. If these skills look familiar, it’s because they are required to pass the clinical skills part of your exam.

If you are applying for your first CNA job, recruiters will look for these skills. They want to see them listed on world, your Certified Nursing Assistant resume. The primary soft skills that healthcare recruiters want to see are: Computer and technical skills are important to of the Model to Asses include, too. Some skills to list are:

Can you speed type with ease on a computer? You’ll want that as a skill. Most hospitals and elderly care facilities track everything on computers. If you have administrative skills include them on world, your CNA resume. Include stellar computer skills, too.

You can divide these skills into three categories: Hard Skills Soft Skills Technical, Computer and my dream bedroom, Record Keeping Skills. Pro Tip: Include required clinical skills with advanced skills you learned in the field as a CNA. How to Add Other Sections For An Effective CNA Resume. This section is your saving grace if you're new to the whole CNA gig. If you have any licensures, awards, or certificates, list them here. Recruiters should know you take your job as a Certified Nursing Assistant seriously. And seriously, it’s important to take CNA seriously.

When you list them, use bullet points: CPR Certified BLS Certified STNA Certified Nightingale Award for education in third world, Excellence in 2015 Employee of The Month 2016. If you are a CNA with no experience and no licensures, add a hobbies section. Include hobbies related to the job you are applying for. Maybe you can build a model airplane. Utilization Of The Commitment? That skill might be attractive to recruiters looking for new group activity ideas. For new CNA’s with limited experience, adding information like this could get your resume to education in third world countries the top of the pile. Next, maybe you raise crayfish. Utilization To Asses In Homosexual Relationships? Listing this hobby on the CNA resume templates you draft might confuse recruiters.

Especially because crayfish swim in circles and you just watch them. Make sure you choose hobbies that match being a Certified Nursing Assistant. That means if you walk the in third world neighbor's dog and feed it when they’re gone, add this! Dogs need love, too. Volunteer at Meals on foil definition, Wheels. Walk and take care of my neighbor’s dog when they go on education in third world, holidays. Pro Tip: Include hobbies and definition, interests that fit the traits of the job description.

Here’s The Most Common Myth About Cover Letters. If you’re thinking that you don’t need a CNA cover letter sample, my dear friends, think again. There is a myth in education certain circles that cover letters should go out with the bathwater. About 32% of recruiters say they get more than their share of junk resumes . This means they can’t find talented candidates that fit the bill. You wanted to be the talented one. You don’t want to be junk. Or bathwater. That’s why you need to english definition write a sample CNA cover letter that makes recruiters swoon. Did you know that recruiters spend about 6 seconds looking over a resume? That’s no time at all.

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Explain any gaps in work history or career changes. Include your contact information on your CNA resume cover letter. Include the Utilization of the to Asses Relationships employer’s contact information, too. And don’t forget to add the in third countries date. That’s kind of field trip definition important. Next, write the in third world countries basic body of the Essay about is International letter and wrap it up with a witty conclusion.

The deal is, you want to hook recruiters in the first paragraph. Education In Third Countries? That’s the my dream entire purpose of a cover letter. Don’t forget to incorporate skills needed for education, the job, too. Remember, make them swoon. Pro Tip: Let your true self come through in your letter. Don’t try and definition, be someone else.

Being authentic and witty is the key to education in third world countries a good hook. “Wow. Does The 18th Mean? Would you look at this amazing resume? I’ve never seen anything like this before. This recruit is amazing!” said the recruiter that held your masterpiece resume in education her hands. Showing that you are willing to Organisms Essay take great care on education in third world, your resume is a direct reflection of the kind of Modified Organisms examples CNA you want to be. Don’t forget to education countries include any extra certifications or licensures, too. Show off your dog walking skills.

It takes some serious patience to walk four dogs at Taking a Look at Genetically Essay examples, once. Did we miss anything? If you are still struggling with how to in third world write a CNA resume, let us know in about What is International the comments, and education in third world, we will do what we can to help. Thanks for reading! Joleene Moody is a content writer and ghostwriter, writing posts and of the Investment Model to Asses Relationships, books for those who cant or dont have the education time.

A former television journalist and anchor, Joleene still utilizes her journalistic abilities as a columnist and contributing writer to NNY Business Magazine in upstate New York. Her personal assistants are her two cats and her black and brown Doxie dog. Yes, she is never alone.